The use of an electrochemical process for U/Pu partitioning has demonstrated a good performance and is a safe alternative for nuclear facilities. Its great advantages are the lack of introduction of foreign ions into the process and, especially, the minimization of the waste volume generated. For the introduction of electrochemical U/Pu partitioning in the 2nd Pu purification cycle, preliminary studies were carried out with a single mixer-settler unit. Based on the results, an 8-stage electrolytic mixer-settler (M-S MIRELE) was designed. Titanium was MIRELE's housing material (cathode) and platinum the anode, insulated with PTFE. The Pu recovery was higher than 99%, indicating the efficiency of this equipment.
Authors:C. Mothé, C. de Araujo, M. de Oliveira, and M. Yoshida
Polyurethane composites with bagasse of sugar cane (BSC) at different proportions: 5, 10 and 20 mass/mass% were prepared by
melt mixing method. The thermal behavior of these composites were studied by thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). The influence of fiber
concentration on the kinetic parameters of the composites was studied and a better interaction was suggested between PU/BSC
with 5mass/mass% of fiber. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to investigate surface morphology.
Authors:Ingrid E. Pereira, Kyssia P. Silva, Laura M. Menegati, Aimara C. Pinheiro, Elaine A. O. Assunção, Maria De Lourdes P. Araújo, Elfadil Abass, Malcolm S. Duthie, Ulrich Steinhoff, and Henrique C. Teixeira
Control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), a major zoonotic disease in Brazil and many other tropical and subtropical countries, remains difficult as an accurate and reliable diagnosis is still missing. In endemic regions, infected dogs are the main parasitic reservoir host of human Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection. Vaccination of dogs against Leishmania infection constitutes an important strategy to prevent or to better control CVL, thus, a serological test that can discriminate between antibodies induced by immunization versus infection is highly desirable in order to improve and simplify diagnosis. Here, four recombinant proteins were evaluated for their ability to detect and differentiate between dogs that are infected with Leishmania or have been immunized with the anti-Leishmania vaccine Leish-Tec®. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the four Leishmania-specific IgG ELISA revealed superior performance of rK28, followed by rKLO8, rK39 and rLb6H. The rK28-based ELISA revealed not only the best accuracy against CVL, but also the lowest cross-reactivity with sera from Leish-Tec® immunized dogs. Our data show that the rK28-based ELISA is highly suitable for CVL screening as it shows high sensitivity with simultaneous low cross-reactivity. Further, the high specificity of the rKLO8 indicates its suitability for the confirmation of CVL diagnosis.
Authors:K. L. G. V. Araújo, P. S. Epaminondas, M. C. D. Silva, A. E. A. de Lima, R. Rosenhaim, A. S. Maia, L. E. B. Soledade, A. L. Souza, I. M. G. Santos, A. G. Souza, and N. Queiroz
Physicochemical and thermal analyses were undertaken to evaluate the influence of the temperature on the oxidation of sea fish oil once its polyunsaturated fatty acids deteriorate rapidly. Fish oil displayed four decomposition steps in synthetic air atmosphere and only one step in nitrogen atmosphere. The first step started at 189 and 222 °C for oxidizing and inert atmospheres, respectively. An OIT value of 53 min was measured at 100 °C. After the degradation process the peroxide index and the iodine index reduced from 35.38 to 9.85 meq × 1000 g−1 and from 139.79 to 120.19 gI2 × 100 g−1, respectively. An increase of the free fatty acids amount from 0.07 to 0.17% was observed while viscosity increased from 57.2 to 58.0 cP. Absorption at 272 nm also increased. The thermogravimetric and spectroscopic techniques are reproducible and versatile being an option for characterization of edible oil oxidation.
Authors:Juliana Cordeiro Cardoso, Ricardo Luiz C. Albuquerque Jr., Francine Ferreira Padilha, Felipe Oliveira Bittencourt, Osvaldo de Freitas, Paula Santos Nunes, Newton L. Pereira, Maria José Vieira Fonseca, and Adriano Antunes S. Araújo
The use of biodegradable natural polymers has increased due to the over-solid packaging waste. In this study, a chemical modification of the casein molecule was performed by Maillard reaction, and the modified polymer was evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG), FT-IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Subsequently, films based on the modified casein were obtained and characterized by mechanical analysis, water vapor transmission, and erosion behavior. The PAGE results suggested an increase of molecular mass of the modified polymer, and FT-IR spectroscopy data indicated inclusion of C–OH groups into this molecule. The TG/DTG curves of modified casein presented a different thermal decomposition profile compared to the individual compounds. Mechanical tests showed that the chemical modification of the casein molecules provided higher elongation rates (45.5%) to the films, suggesting higher plasticity, than the original molecules (13.4%). The modified casein films presented higher permeability (0.505 ± 0.006 μg/h mm3) than the original polymer (0.387 ± 0.006 μg/h mm3) films at 90% relative humidity (RH). In pH 1.2, modified casein films presented higher erosion rates (32.690 ± 0.692%) than casein films (19.910 ± 2.083%) after 8 h, suggesting an increased sensibility for erosion of the modified casein films in acid environment. In water (pH 7.0), the films erosion profiles were similar. Those findings indicate that the modification of molecule by Maillard reaction provided films more plastic, hydrophilic, and sensitive to erosion in acid environment, suggesting that a new polymer with changed properties was founded.
Authors:P. S. Epaminondas, K. L. G. V. Araújo, A. Lima de Souza, M. C. D. Silva, N. Queiroz, A. L. Souza, L. E. B. Soledade, I. M. G. Santos, and A. G. Souza
Chemical and thermal analyses of golden and brown flaxseeds were carried out for raw and toasted seeds aiming at evaluating their nutritional and thermo-oxidative properties. Moisture, lipids, protein, soluble carbohydrates, and ash contents were quantified. Concerning lipids and proteins, in average, no meaningful differences were observed for the two varieties, being also equivalent to the literature data. The golden variety had a lower amount of fibers and a higher amount of soluble carbohydrates than the brown variety. The techniques of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry were applied for elucidating the thermal degradation process of the seeds. The toasted gold and brown seeds were more stable to thermal decomposition than the raw seeds, under oxidative conditions. Golden seeds seem to be more susceptible to oxidation than brown seeds, under toasting conditions. Finally, no meaningful advantages were observed for the golden seeds in comparison to the brown ones.
Authors:Ellen Denise P. Almeida, Adjane A. Costa, Mairim R. Serafini, Fábia C. Rossetti, Juliana M. Marchetti, Victor Hugo V. Sarmento, Rogéria de S. Nunes, Mário Ernesto G. Valerio, Adriano A.S. Araújo, and Ana Amélia M. Lira
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) without drug and SLN loaded with chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (AlClPc) were prepared by solvent diffusion method in aqueous system and characterized by thermal analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in this study. Determination of particle size, zeta potential (ZP), and encapsulation efficiency were also evaluated. SLN containing AlClPc of nanometer size with high encapsulation efficiency and ZP were obtained. The results indicated that the size of SLN loaded with AlClPc is larger than that of the inert particle, but ZP is not changed significantly with incorporation of the drug. In differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves, it was observed that the melting point of stearic acid (SA) isolated and in SLN occurred at 55 and 64 °C, respectively, suggesting the presence of different polymorphs. DSC also shows that the crystallinity state of SLN was much less than that of SA isolated. The incorporation of drug in SLN may have been favored by this lower crystallinity degree of the samples. XRD techniques corroborated with the thermal analytic techniques, suggesting the polymorphic modifications of stearic acid.