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  • Author or Editor: C.H. Chen x
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Abstract  

This work is the first evaluation of environmental gamma exposure rates by the Nuclear Medicine Department at Lin Shin Hospital (LSH) in Taichung with Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-100H) during the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. After the 9.0 MW strong earthquake hit northern Japan on March 11, 2011, a TLD-100H was used to monitor environmental kerma rate at Taichung (2,500 km away from northern Japan) from Mar-08 to Apr-09, 2011 and evaluated kerma rate due to global fallout of the sever FNPP accidents. Exposure rates varied widely among positions close to the PET/CT facility. Observed kerma rates of up to 4.12 ± 0.62 mSv mo−1 indicated an explicit, heavy leakage of photon through the PET/CT facility. No significant contributions were detected at Taichung, Taiwan. Hence, the health effect cause by the “extra radiation” from FNPP accidents is negligible. As this was a rare case of environmental monitoring during a nuclear power plant accident, its findings are of considerable significance.

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Evaluation of minimal detectable amounts (MDA) of iodine in various or specified irradiation and measurement conditions is described. Interfering contributions due to Na and Cl to the spectral background as well as the dead time of detection system were calculated in details based on an experimental approach. The MDA of iodine for some important biological samples with various Na and Cl concentrations can be evaluated and predicted according to the specified irradiation and measurement arrangements to meet the requirement of analytical purposes.

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Abstract  

Explosion limits are crucial information for people who handle/operate flammable vapors or gases. It was reported in our previous studies that there is a theoretical linear relation between the reciprocal of the explosion limits and the reciprocal of the molar fraction of hydrocarbons diluted with inert carbon dioxide or nitrogen. In this work, oxygenated hydrocarbons were inertized by inert steam, and the relation of the upper explosion limit and the extent of the inertization was explored. With the assumption that the adiabatic flame temperatures are the same for all limit mixtures, it was found that the aforementioned linear relation still holds in case the inert gas is of steam and the flammable material is of oxygenated hydrocarbons. Experimental work was carried out in a 20-L-Apparatus at 101 kPa and 423 K to measure the upper explosion limit of methyl alcohol, acetone, and methyl formate diluted with steam, respectively. It was found that experimental results fit the theoretical model very well.

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A unified semantics of Chinese adverbial ziji ‘self’ is proposed for its three exclusive readings. In the proposal, adverbial ziji is a focused item, evoking alternatives for consideration by its focus semantic value. Depending on domain variation and different syntactic adjoining positions, ziji shows various surface readings, though the availability of readings is affected by context, world knowledge, and a relation presupposition triggered by ziji. The proposed mechanism suggests the following. First, CauseP for internal causation cannot be introduced by ziji, but is projected more prevalently than commonly assumed. Second, CauseP should be projected in anticausatives. If this analysis is on the right track, it will give us a new perspective of intensifiers and the projection of CauseP, and it will also help us advance the study of anticausatives.

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Abstract  

Organic peroxides (OPs) are very susceptible to thermal sources, chemical pollutants or even mechanical shock. Over the years, they have caused many serious explosions. Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) is widely employed to produce phenol and dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) in the manufacturing process. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal activity monitor (TAM) were employed to determine the potential thermal hazards and thermokinetic parameters (such as exothermic onset temperature (T 0), maximum temperature (T max), and enthalpy (ΔH)) of CHP mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the concentration vs. time of CHP.When CHP is mixed with NaOH, the T 0 is induced earlier and reactions become more intricate than the pure CHP solution. CHP added to NaOH or H2SO4 is more dangerous than pure CHP alone. Depending on the operating conditions, NaOH and H2SO4 are the incompatible chemicals for CHP.

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Abstract  

The exothermic decomposition of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in cumene liquid was characterized by isothermal microcalorimetry, involving the thermal activity monitor (TAM). Unlike the exothermic behaviors previously determined from an adiabatic calorimeter, such as the vent sizing package 2 (VSP2), or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal curves revealed that CHP undergoes an autocatalytic decomposition detectable between 75 and 90°C. Previous studies have shown that the CHP in a temperature range higher than 100°C conformed to an n th order reaction rate model. CHP heat of decomposition and autocatalytic kinetics behavior were measured and compared with previous reports, and the methodology and the advantages of using the TAM to obtain an autocatalytic model by curve fitting are reported. With various autocatalytic models, such as the Prout-Tompkins equation and the Avrami-Erofeev rate law, the best curve fit among models was also investigated and proposed.

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Abstract  

The flammability characteristics of chemical substances are very important for safety considerations in manufacturing processes. This study investigated the mixing of toluene and methanol mixtures with five vapor mixing ratios (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 vol.%) at initial conditions of 1 atm and 150°C, and determined the flammability properties to identify their potential fire and explosion hazards. These safety-related parameters included lower explosion limit (LEL), upper explosion limit (UEL), maximum explosion overpressure (P max) and rate of maximum explosion pressure rise ((dP/dt)max); all of them were measured by a 20-L-Apparatus. In terms of flammability tests for this research, the experimental results indicated that when methanol was increased, which could induce a higher range of flammability, afterwards the situation could be triggered to a dangerous level, such as fire or explosion. Based on the above-mentioned, we could obtain a series of flammability properties and provide inherently safer design in related industrial processes for preventing serious fire and explosion accidents.

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Abstract  

This study was performed under the joint TRMC/INER program for the determination of low level85Kr and133Xe concentrations in the environmental air samples. Based on cryogenic adsorption of krypton and xenon on charcoal followed by chromatographic separation from other gases, the85Kr and133Xe recovered from 200 liters of atmospheric air can be determined by either on-line gas flow proportional counter or liquid scintillation counting. The recovery yields of krypton and xenon examined by using85Kr and133Xe tracers were nearly 100%. The minimum detectable activity of85Kr and133Xe by gas flow proportional counting is about 7.40 Bq. The method is satisfactory for environmental monitoring applications under abnormal conditions of nuclear facilities. However, for lower level environmental85Kr and133Xe measurements, the liquid scintillation counting method can be applied due to their extremely low detection limits (i.e. 0.107 Bq and 0.093 Bq for85Kr and133Xe, respectively). Using this method, the measurable limits of concentrations are 0.535 Bq/m3 and 0.466 Bq/m3 for85Kr and133Xe, respectively.

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