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  • Author or Editor: C.H. Shi x
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Abstract  

The thermal degradation of cotton cellulose treated with chemical mixtures containing P and N was studied by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, Char yield and limiting-oxygen-index (LOI). Our experiments demonstrated the following facts. The temperatures and activation energies of pyrolysis were lower for cotton cellulose treated with flame retardants than those for untreated samples and the values of Char yield and LOI were greater for treated cotton than those for untreated one.

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Male sterile mutants play an important role in the utilisation of crop heterosis. Male sterile plants were found in S5 generations of maize hybrid ZH2, through continuous sib-mating by using the fertile plants in the same population, we obtained a male sterile sibling population K932MS including sterile plants K932S and a fertile plant K932F. The objective of this study was to clarify the genetic characterisation and abortion characteristics by nucleus and cytoplasm effect analyses, cytoplasm grouping, and cytological observation. The results showed that no difference was found between K932S and K932F in the vegetative growth stage, but K932S had no emerging anther or pollen grains. The segregation ratio of fertile plants to sterile plants was 1:1 in the sibling progenies, while it was 3:1 in self-crossing progenies of K932F. The sterility of K932S could be restored among reciprocal progenies when seven normal inbred lines were used as females respectively. The fertility expression of K932S crossed with 30 testers would be changed in different test-crosses and some backcross progenies. The C-type restorer Zifeng-1 (Rf4Rf4) was able to restore the fertility of K932S, and the specific PCR amplification bands of K932MS were consistent with CMSCMo17. The anther of K932S began abortion at dyad with its tapetum expanded radically and vacuolated: this induced abnormality in the shapes of both dyads and tetrads. The microspore could not develop normally, and then it collapsed and gradually disappeared. Hence, K932MS is a C-type cytoplasmic male sterile mutant with a pollen-free, stable inheritance: it has potential application value for further research.

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Abstract  

A novel gelling method was studied to stabilize phase change material Na2HPO4 · 12H2O with amylose grafted sodium acrylate. Gelled Na2HPO4 · 12H2O shows stable heat storage performance prepared at optimized conditions: 2.7mass/mass% sodium acrylate, 0.4 mass/mass% amylose, 0.05–0.09 mass/mass% N, N′-methylenebisacrylamide, 0.05–0.09 mass/mass% K2S2O8 and Na2SO3 (mass ratio 1:1), at 50 °C. Na2HPO4 · 12H2O was dispersed in gel network as tiny crystals less than 0.1 mm. Melting points were in the range 35.4 ± 2 °C. Short-term thermal cycling proves the effectiveness of the novel method for eliminating phase separation in the gelled salt. Adiabatic calorimetric measurement of heat capacities shows two phase transitions, which correspond to melting of Na2HPO4 · 12H2O and freezable bond water in gel, respectively. Heat of fusion of pure Na2HPO4 · 12H2O was determined as 260.9 J g−1. Distribution of extra water is: free water:freezable water:nonfreezing water = 0:0.85:0.15.

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Abstract  

The heat capacities of 2-benzoylpyridine were measured with an automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 80 to 340 K. The melting point, molar enthalpy, Δfus H m, and entropy, Δfus S m, of fusion of this compound were determined to be 316.49±0.04 K, 20.91±0.03 kJ mol–1 and 66.07±0.05 J mol–1 K–1, respectively. The purity of the compound was calculated to be 99.60 mol% by using the fractional melting technique. The thermodynamic functions (H TH 298.15) and (S TS 298.15) were calculated based on the heat capacity measurements in the temperature range of 80–340 K with an interval of 5 K. The thermal properties of the compound were further investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). From the DSC curve, the temperature corresponding to the maximum evaporation rate, the molar enthalpy and entropy of evaporation were determined to be 556.3±0.1 K, 51.3±0.2 kJ mol–1 and 92.2±0.4 J K–1 mol–1, respectively, under the experimental conditions.

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Abstract

Oleogels have been extensively investigated in the food processing in recent years, and they have become one of the healthier alternative. The possibility of constructing oleogel material in a manner similar to hydrocolloid gel has now been gradually becoming a reality. In this regard, this review provides coverage of the latest developments and applications of oleogels in terms of preparation strategies, physicochemical properties, health aspects, and potential food applications. Both solid fat content and crystallisation behaviour are discussed for oleogels fabricated by gelators and under different conditions. Oleogels could replace hydrogenated vegetable oils in food product, reduce the fatty acid content, and be used to prepare food products such as meat, ice-cream, chocolate, bread, and biscuits with desirable properties. The aims were to assess the formation mechanism, construction methods of oleogels and the advance on the application of oleogel structures in the food field, as well as the further exploration of oleogels and in complex food systems in the future.

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Summary

Baihe Zhimu Tang (BZT) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal formula for the treatment of various diseases; however, its active components have remained unknown. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) methods were developed for the analysis of metabolic components of BZT. The HPLC experiments used a reversed-phase Shim-Pack VP-ODS C18 column with the column temperature at 35°C and a mobile phase system consisting of aqueous formic acid (0.05%, υ/υ) and acetonitrile using a gradient elution at the flow rate of 0.2 mL/min−1. The ESI-MS was operated with a single-quadrupole mass spectrometer in both negative and positive ion modes. After oral administration of extraction of BZT, the rat's plasma, urine, and feces were also analyzed; 37 metabolic components including 23 original components and 14 transformative components of BZT were detected. The analysis of metabolic components in BZT by HPLC-ESI-MS methods could be a useful means of identifying the multi-components of BZT and understanding their possible metabolic mechanism of action in the body. The results also narrow the range of active compounds to be found in BZT, and pave the way for further pharmacology and active mechanism research.

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