Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 31 items for

  • Author or Editor: C.J. Lee x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract  

Wastes containing radioactive materials have been produced ever since ore recovery and processing began; however, such materials did not become of public concern until the large-scale activities involving uranium and thorium ores and nuclear fission during and after World War II. Efforts to provide disposal sites for radioactive wastes, especially those associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear energy, have been largely unsuccessful for the past 40 years or so and are nearing crisis proportions as the new millennium begins — its eventual resolution is believed to require greater reliance on stewardship and a larger governmental presence.

Restricted access

Abstract  

A (D3C)2O (d6-acetone) target was irradiated with semi-monoenergetic neutrons generated from 9Be(p,n)9B reaction with 20 MeV protons to convert 13C and oxygen nuclides in the target into 14C. With both liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) we measured the (D3C)2O (d6-acetone) liquid targets, which were combustible and easy to afford CO2 for the AMS measurements. The 14C yield measured by the LSC method turned out to be 80 times larger than that by the AMS method. This large discrepancy may be attributed to the loss of 14C atoms during the sample pretreatment in the AMS method such as combustion and cryogenic trapping of CO2. It means that 14C newly produced by nuclear reactions can exist in various chemical forms, i.e., C3D6O, CO, CO2, hydrocarbons, etc., and a simple sample pretreatment right after production can cause serious isotopic fractionation. Therefore, using the AMS method, extreme caution in sample pretreatment should be exercised when the 14C yield produced immediately by nuclear reaction is measured.

Restricted access

Abstract  

An approach based on sequential extraction separation and the subsequent ICP-MS measurement was introduced to determine 99Tc in radioactive wastes. The radwastes were firstly alkaline-fused and the 99Tc was separated by a sequential solvent extraction prior to ICP-MS measurement. NaDDC was selected as a chelation reagent in the solvent extraction processes. The influence of HCl and matrix concentration on the recovery yield and the effectiveness of removing isobar and unwanted radionuclides, such as 137Cs, 54Mn, 60Co and 110mAg, were evaluated. The designed sequential extraction procedure was optimized by an extraction experiment. The proposed technique is proven to be a simple and practical alternative for 99Tc determination in low-level radioactive wastes; chemical separation of 99Tc can be simplified and preconcentration such as precipitation and/or ion exchange, before the solvent extraction, can be excluded.

Restricted access

Abstract  

High resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with an on-line flow injection system (FI-HR-ICP-MS) was applied to determine the ultra-trace level 99Tc in soil. The flow injection system (PrepLab) was composed of two TEVA-SpecÒresins, reduced remarkably the sample amounts and the analysis time, compared to the conventional analytical methods. In the flow injection system, Mo and Ru were sufficiently eliminated by using the flow injection system, with the decontamination factors of 1.6.104 and 9.9.105, respectively. With the present method, it was possible to determine ultra-low level of 99Tc in 3-6 g soil at 3–5 hours of analysis time per sample. The relative standard deviation for each sample was less than 4%. The detection limits for 99Tc was 85 fg.ml–1 (0.05 mBq.ml–1), which was calculated from the three times standard deviation of the count rate of the blank.

Restricted access

Abstract  

This work presents a low-level background gamma spectrometry system capable of achieving rapid determination of90Sr without chemical separation, in a soil sample when the90Sr to -ray emitting nuclide concentration ratio exceeds 10. The system consists of a highly efficient HPGe central detector operated in coincidence or anticoincidence with a NaI(Tl) guard detector and a NaI(Tl) backscatter detector. Experimental results indicate that the bremstrahlung radiation from a pure -emitter can be distinguished with respect to the differences in normal and coincidence spectra. The90Sr activity can be directly detemined in the sample in less than 1 hour with a minimum detectable concentration (MDC) estimated at 0.002 Bq·g–1 for a sample containing no appreciable -ray nuclides or other high energy, -emitting nuclides. In actual measurement, a 0.06 Bq·g–1 MDC for contaminated soils is achieved.

Restricted access

To investigate the pathogens that racing pigeons in Taiwan are exposed to, a total of 3764 pigeons from 90 lofts were analysed by collection of blood samples in the period between October 2000 and September 2001. The haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed to detect antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), type 2 avian paramyxovirus (APMV-2), and egg drop syndrome '76 virus (EDS-76V). The agar-gel precipitin (AGP) test was used to detect antibodies against fowl adenovirus (FAV), goose parvovirus (GPV), and avian reovirus (REO). The virus neutralisation (VN) test was applied to detect antibodies against the serotypes FAV-1 and FAV-8. A rapid serum agglutination test was applied for the detection of antibodies against Mycoplasma spp. Antibodies to several infectious agents were found, including NDV (43.3%), EDS-76V (19.2%), FAV (0.8%), REO (0.5%), APMV-2 (0.2%), Mycoplasma columbinum (10.3%), M. columborale (7.1%), M. synoviae (1.8%) and M. gallisepticum (1.3%). Antibodies against GPV, FAV-1, and FAV-8 were not detected in any serum sample. NDV seroprevalence was significantly higher in pigeons of more than one year of age than in pigeons younger than one year. ND or EDS-76 seroprevalence of pigeons vaccinated with ND vaccine or EDS-76 vaccine was significantly higher than that of pigeons that did not receive any vaccination.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Evaluation of minimal detectable amounts (MDA) of iodine in various or specified irradiation and measurement conditions is described. Interfering contributions due to Na and Cl to the spectral background as well as the dead time of detection system were calculated in details based on an experimental approach. The MDA of iodine for some important biological samples with various Na and Cl concentrations can be evaluated and predicted according to the specified irradiation and measurement arrangements to meet the requirement of analytical purposes.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Preventing accidental explosions of flammable liquid/gas mixtures is very important. As far as flammability characteristics are concerned, we simulated the effects of inert liquid/gas, which was filled with reactors, vessels, or closed space, employed in the chemical process industries. The inert liquid/gas (H2O) weakened the oxygen concentration and reduced solvent vapor concentration in a 20-L-Apparatus. This study investigated the flammability characteristics of acetone/water solutions (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, and 25/75 vol.%) that are controlled at a temperature of 150°C and pressures of 101/202 kPa, respectively. The flammability parameters included flammability limits (LEL and UEL), maximum explosion pressure (P max), maximum explosion pressure rise ((dP dt −1)max), and vapor deflagration index (K g). The results of a series of experimental tests showed that UEL, P max, and K g all decreased with steam rising under the experimental conditions. The results can be applied to process safety design/operation for identifying whether the inert liquid/gas (H2O) content has any substantial effects in reducing the fire and explosion hazard of the solution of interest.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Flammable chemicals are frequently encountered in industrial processes. Under the safe operation basis and for fire/explosion danger prevention, it is imperative to recognize the flammability characteristics of these processes, especially under the working scenarios for elevated pressure and temperature. This study was conducted to investigate fire and explosion properties, including the explosion limits (LEL and UEL), maximum explosion overpressure (P max), maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dP/dt)max, gas or vapor deflagration index (K g) and explosion class (St) of various acetone/water solutions (100, 75, 50 and 25 vol.%) at higher initial pressure/temperature up to 2 atm and 200°C via a 20-L-Apparatus. We further discussed the safety-related parameters and fire/explosion damage degree variations in the above aqueous acetone within 1 atm and 150°C. The results offered a successful solution for evaluating the flammability hazard effect in such a relevant crucial process with elevated pressure and temperature.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The novel N4S2 azacrown ion exchange resin was prepared. The ion exchange capacity of N4S2 ion exchanger was 0.34 meq/g dry resin. A study on the separation of lithium isotopes was carried out with N4S2 azacrown ion exchange resin. The lighter isotope,6Li is concentrated in the resin phase, while the heavier isotope,7Li is enriched in the solution phase. With column chromatography [0.1 cm (I.D.)×32 cm (height)] using 2.0M NH4Cl as an eluent, separation factor, a=1.034 was obtained.

Restricted access