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  • Author or Editor: C.Y. Wang x
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Abstract  

We prove that the Eisenstein series E(z, s) have no real zeroes for s ∈ (0, 1) when the value of the imaginary part of z is in the range

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< Im z < 4.94. For very large and very small values of the imaginary part of z, E(z, s) have real zeros in (½, 1), i.e. GRH does not hold for the Eisenstein series. Using these properties, we prove that the Rankin-Selberg L-function attached with the Ramanujan τ-function has no real zeros in the critical strip, except at the central point s = ½.

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Abstract

Let denote the set {n∣2|n, ∀ p>2 with p−1|k}. We prove that when , almost all integers can be represented as the sum of a prime and a k-th power of prime for k≧3. Moreover, when , almost all integers n∊(X,X+H] can be represented as the sum of a prime and a k-th power of integer for k≧3.

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Abstract  

Thermal runaway reactions associated with exothermic behaviors of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) solutions and TBHP reacting with alkaline contaminants were studied. A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to characterize these inherent behaviors of TBHP solutions with KOH, NaOH, LiOH and NH4OH. The exothermic peak in thermal curves of TBHP solutions with different alkali were detected by DSC thermal analysis. By thermal analysis, we compared various heats of decomposition of TBHP solutions with alkaline impurities, and determined the incompatible hazards of various TBHP solutions with alkaline contaminants. Comparing with TBHP in various diluents, the adiabatic runaway reaction via vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) indicated that aqueous TBHP intrinsically possesses the phenomena of thermal explosion with dramatic self-reactive rate and pressure rise under adiabatic conditions. Many commercial organic peroxides may have different hazard behaviors. Therefore, using thermal method to classify the hazards is an important subject.

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Abstract  

Analytical equations related adiabatic runaway reactions to programmed scanning thermal curves from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were proposed. Thermal or pressure hazards can be assessed from the adiabatic trajectories expressed in the analytical equations. These industrially energetic materials include polymerizable monomers, unstable organic peroxides and nitro-compounds. Various emergency relief behaviors, such as tempered vapor, gassy, and hybrid were re-evaluated for calculating vent sizing or mass flow rates from DSC thermal curves and the related physical properties.

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Two methods, e.g. initial rate method and thermokinetic reduced extent method were presented for studies on non-competitive inhibition. Arginase-catalyzed the hydrolysis of L-arginine toL-ornithine and urea and the inhibition of this reaction by sodium fluoride were studied in the absence and presence of exogenous of Mn2+at 37C in 40 mM sodium barbiturate-hydrochloric acid buffer solution (pH 7.4). Both methods were successively used to determine the values of K1. The advances and disadvantages of each method were compared in this paper. Exogenous Mn2+ could result in more sensitivity of arginase to F-1. Since the inhibition of arginase by F-1 depends on the pH values of the reaction system and behave as a non-competitive inhibition, it probably due to its small volume and high electronic density allow it access to the activity site of the enzyme and replaces of -OH2 (or -OH) as the bridge ligand with Mn(II, II) cluster. However, further studies are necessary to determine the modes of interaction of F-1 with bovine liver arginase.

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Abstract

Vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) was used to measure the thermal hazard and runaway characteristics of 18650 lithium-ion batteries, which were manufactured by Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. Runaway reaction behaviors of these batteries were obtained: 50% state of charge (SOC), and 100% SOC. The tests evaluated the thermal hazard characteristics, such as initial exothermic temperature (T 0), self-heating rate (dT dt −1), pressure-rise rate (dP dt −1), pressure temperature profiles, maximum temperature, and pressure which were observed by adiabatic calorimetric methodology via VSP2 using customized test cells. The safety assessment of lithium-ion cells proved to be an important subject. The maximum self-heating rate (dT dt −1)max and the largest pressure-rise rate (dP dt −1)max of Sanyo 18650 lithium-ion battery of 100% SOC were measured to be 37,468.8 °C min−1 and 10,845.6 psi min−1, respectively, and the maximum temperature was 733.1 °C. Therefore, a runaway reaction is extremely serious when a lithium-ion battery is exothermic at 100% SOC. This result also demonstrated that the thermal VSP2 is an alternative method of thermal hazard assessment for battery safety research. Finally, self-reactive ratings on thermal hazards of 18650 lithium-ion batteries were studied and elucidated to a deeper extent.

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Abstract  

The kinetics of protein thermal transition is of a significant interest from the standpoint of medical treatment. The effect of sucrose (0–15 mass%) on bovine serum albumin denatured aggregation kinetics at high concentration was studied by the iso-conversional method and the master plots method using differential scanning calorimetry. The observed aggregation was irreversible and conformed to the simple order reaction. The denaturation temperature (T m), the kinetic triplets all increased as the sucrose concentration increased, which indicated the remarkable stabilization effect of sucrose. The study purpose is to provide new opportunities in exploring aggregation kinetics mechanisms in the presence of additive.

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A comparative proteomic analysis of grain proteins during five grain developmental stages of wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS) and its 1Sl/1B substitution line CS-1Sl(1B) was carried out in the current study. A total of 78 differentially expressed protein (DEP) spots with at least 2-fold expression difference were detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Among these, 73 protein spots representing 55 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-offlight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS). Differential protein spots between the two genotypes were analyzed by cluster software, which revealed significant proteome differences. There were 39 common spots (including 33 DEPs) that showed significant difference between the two lines across five grain developmental stages, of which 14 DEP spots (including 11 DEPs) were mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism that were encoded by the genes on 1B chromosome while 25 DEP spots (including 12 DEPs) were mainly related to stress response and gluten quality that were encoded by 1S1 chromosome. These results indicated that the Sl genome harbors more stress and quality related genes that are potential valuable for improving wheat stress resistance and product quality.

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Abstract  

A TiO2/monazite photocatalyst was prepared by embedding TiO2 nanoparticles into a monazite substrate surface. TiCl4 hydrolysis/citric acid chelating procedure under acidic conditions were used to synthesize the nanophase TiO2 particles. The anatase TiO2/monazite photocatalyst surface area, morphology, crystalline and elemental concentrations were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Monazite contains a large amount of Ce-, La-, Nd- and Th-PO4 compounds; it has been known as a natural mineral material with minor radioactivity. TiO2-CeO2 composite is a kind of radiation sensitive photocatalyst in which the radiations of thorium nuclides give energy to trigger TiO2 and cerium ions which play an energy absorber with charge separator. The result showed that methylene blue and phenol were spontaneously photocatalytic decomposed by TiO2/monazite composite even in a dark environment. A synergistic effect was also examined with applied exterior UV or 60Co irradiation. A hybrid mechanism is proposed; according by the radioluminescence (RL) from excited Ce ion by γ-radiation soliciting CeO2/TiO2 heterojunction (HJ). This seems to be a possible mechanism to explain this self-activated photo-catalytic behavior.

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Abstract  

The thermal decomposition of strontium acetate hemihydrate has been studied by TG-DTA/DSC and TG coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) under non-isothermal conditions in nitrogen gas from ambient temperature to 600°C. The TG-DTA/DSC experiments indicate the decomposition goes mainly through two steps: the dehydration and the subsequent decomposition of anhydrous strontium acetate into strontium carbonate. TG-FTIR analysis of the evolved products from the non-oxidative thermal degradation indicates mainly the release of water, acetone and carbon dioxide. The model-free isoconversional methods are employed to calculate the E a of both steps at different conversion α from 0.1 to 0.9 with increment of 0.05. The relative constant apparent E a values during dehydration (0.5<α<0.9) of strontium acetate hemihydrate and decomposition of anhydrous strontium acetate (0.5<α<0.9) suggest that the simplex reactions involved in the corresponding thermal events. The most probable kinetic models during dehydration and decomposition have been estimated by means of the master plots method.

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