Authors:Carlos Carmelo Pérez-Marín, Guillermo Vizuete, Carmen Borge and Juan Jose Galisteo
While testing for uterine bacterial infection is usually performed prior to artificial insemination (AI), samples taken during or after embryo flushing are generally not assessed either in subfertile and old mares or in fertile mares, even though knowledge of the status of the uterine environment in which the embryo is to develop would help to predict the outcome of embryo transfer programmes. The presence of bacteria and inflammatory cells in the liquid retained in the filter after uterine flushing in donors was determined at the moment of embryo recovery. Primarily, a group of mares (n = 8) displaying evident clinical signs of endometritis was selected to evaluate the cytological and bacteriological findings in filters after uterine flushing and in uterine cotton swabs. Two uterine samples (for cytological and bacterial evaluation) were taken with cotton swabs and, subsequently, the uterus was flushed and the efflux was also subjected to bacteriological and cytological analysis. Later, a group of donors (n = 20) was also involved to evaluate the presence of bacteria and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). After embryo flushing and collection, the efflux retained in the filter was evaluated by cytology and bacteriology. A sterile cotton swab was then scrubbed on the filter mesh, and a bacterial culture was performed. The embryo recovery rate was 30% (n = 6); Escherichia coli was isolated in one efflux sample collected from embryo-productive flushings, while the other five samples were negative by culture. Bacterial growth (not considered as contamination) was observed in a total of three samples, although no inflammatory cells were detected. Bacteria were isolated in endometrial samples collected after embryo flushing in donor mares, although inflammatory cells were never present in the uterus of mares from which embryos were recovered. In the absence of clinical signs, cytological and/or bacteriological samplings are not very useful for estimating the success of embryo recovery in donor mares, but evaluation of the filter and efflux after uterine flushing in donors may provide valuable information regarding uterine status at embryo collection.
Authors:Inmaculada Cuevas, Alfonso Carbonero, David Cano, Isabel L. Pacheco, Juan C. Marín and Carmen Borge
This paper describes the first documented outbreak of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) caused by Pasteurella multocida type B in cattle in Spain. This acute, highly fatal septicaemia causes major economic losses in cattle and buffaloes in many areas of Asia and Africa. In other species and in European countries it is an infrequently reported disease. Acute septicaemic pasteurellosis occurred in a free-range farm of 150 cattle and 70 beef calves in Southern Spain. Twenty-one calves and one cow were affected, of which three calves and the adult cow died. Postmortem examination revealed characteristic oedema in the ventral area of the neck and the brisket region, and widespread haemorrhages in all organs. Pure cultures of P. multocida were obtained from all tissues and organs studied. The aetiological agent was further confirmed by molecular and biochemical analysis as P. multocida capsular type B, biovar 3. Although the source of infection could not be determined, wildlife may play an important role. The use of tulathromycin in the initial stage of the disease might be related to the low morbidity and mortality of this outbreak. After using an autogenous vaccine no more cases of HS were observed.