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  • Author or Editor: Cecilie Schou Andreassen x
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Abstract

Aims

This article addresses the stable tendency of excessive and compulsive working (i.e., workaholism). The main aim is to provide an updated oversight of the research area related to definition, prevalence, assessment, causes, outcomes, intervention as well as proposed future research directions. The target-population is both researchers and clinicians.

Methods

The findings are identified by narratively reviewing the literature.

Results

Research into workaholism has expanded over the last two decades. Several screening instruments to identify workaholics have been developed. The vast majority of these are based on seemingly atheoretical foundations, lacking convergent validity with each other and with related constructs. Research generally shows that workaholism is related to impaired health and well-being as well as to conflicts between work and family life. Workaholism is probably caused and maintained by a range of factors, although solid empirical underpinnings for suggested antecedents are currently sparse. So far no well-evaluated interventions for workaholism exist.

Conclusions

At present, workaholism as a construct lacks conceptual and empirical clarity. Future research efforts should prioritize longitudinal studies as well as studies incorporating unbiased, firm parameters of both health and behavior.

Open access

Myths about “The myths about work addiction”

Commentary on: Ten myths about work addiction (Griffiths et al., 2018)

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Cecilie Schou Andreassen, Wilmar B. Schaufeli and Ståle Pallesen

The present paper encompasses a response to the debate paper by Griffiths et al. about work addiction myths. Generally, we found weak empirical basis for the statement that there exist major myths and controversies regarding work addiction. Although we agree with Griffiths et al. on several issues, we argue that: (a) although work addiction is not a new behavioral addiction, work addiction research is still in its infancy; (b) work addiction is largely similar to other behavioral addictions; (c) work addiction and workaholism are actually the same; and (d) there is no compelling evidence that work addiction occurs before adulthood.

Open access

Background and aims

“Study addiction” has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and defined within the framework of work addiction. Using a newly developed measure to assess this construct, the Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the present study examined the 1-year stability of study addiction and factors related to changes in this construct over time, and is the first longitudinal investigation of study addiction thus far.

Methods

The BStAS and the Ten Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 1,133 Norwegians and 794 Polish, who were still students completed the survey.

Results

The test–retest reliability coefficients for the BStAS revealed that the scores were relatively stable over time. In Norway, scores on the BStAS were higher in Wave 2 than in Wave 1, whereas in Poland, the reverse pattern was observed. Learning time outside classes at Wave 1 was positively related to escalation of study addiction symptoms over time in both samples. Being female and scoring higher on neuroticism was related to an increase in study addiction in the Norwegian sample only.

Conclusions

Study addiction appears to be temporally stable, and the amount of learning time spent outside classes predicts changes in study addiction 1 year later.

Open access

Aims

Recent empirical studies investigating “study addiction” have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction, defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction.

Methods

The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 379 Norwegians and 401 Polish who began to work professionally completed the survey.

Results

The intraclass correlation between BStAS and BWAS revealed that the scores were somewhat related; however, the relationship was slightly weaker than the temporal stability of both constructs. In the Norwegian sample, scoring higher on neuroticism and lower on learning time outside educational classes in Wave 1 was positively related to work addiction in Wave 2, whereas gender was unrelated to work addiction in Wave 2 when controlling for other studied variables in either samples.

Conclusion

Study addiction and work addiction appear to be closely related suggesting that the former may be a precursor for (or an early form of) the latter.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Cecilie Schou Andreassen, Mark D. Griffiths, Siri Renate Gjertsen, Elfrid Krossbakken, Siri Kvam and Ståle Pallesen

Abstract

Aims

Although relationships between addiction and personality have previously been explored, no study has ever simultaneously investigated the interrelationships between several behavioral addictions, and related these to the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality.

Methods

In this study, 218 university students completed questionnaires assessing seven different behavioral addictions (i.e., Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction) as well as an instrument assessing the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality.

Results

Of the 21 bivariate intercorrelations between the seven behavioral addictions, all were positive (and nine significantly). The results also showed that (i) Neuroticism was positively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction, (ii) Extroversion was positively associated with Facebook addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, (iii) Openness to experience was negatively associated with Facebook addiction and mobile phone addiction, (iv) Agreeableness was negatively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, and (v) Conscientiousness was negatively associated with Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, and compulsive buying and positively associated with exercise addiction and study addiction.

Conclusions

The positive associations between the seven behavioral addictions suggest one or several underlying pathological factors. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that personality traits explained between 6% and 17% of the variance in the seven behavioral addictions, suggesting that personality to a varying degree explains scores on measures of addictive behaviors.

Open access

Aims

Recent research has suggested that for some individuals, educational studying may become compulsive and excessive and lead to ‘study addiction’. The present study conceptualized and assessed study addiction within the framework of workaholism, defining it as compulsive over-involvement in studying that interferes with functioning in other domains and that is detrimental for individuals and/or their environment.

Methods

The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS) was tested — reflecting seven core addiction symptoms (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, relapse, and problems) — related to studying. The scale was administered via a cross-sectional survey distributed to Norwegian (n = 218) and Polish (n = 993) students with additional questions concerning demographic variables, study-related variables, health, and personality.

Results

A one-factor solution had acceptable fit with the data in both samples and the scale demonstrated good reliability. Scores on BStAS converged with scores on learning engagement. Study addiction (BStAS) was significantly related to specific aspects of studying (longer learning time, lower academic performance), personality traits (higher neuroticism and conscientiousness, lower extroversion), and negative health-related factors (impaired general health, decreased quality of life and sleep quality, higher perceived stress).

Conclusions

It is concluded that BStAS has good psychometric properties, making it a promising tool in the assessment of study addiction. Study addiction is related in predictable ways to personality and health variables, as predicted from contemporary workaholism theory and research.

Open access