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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Fanxing Gao, Changshui Wang, Lisheng Liu, Jianhua Guo, Shangwen Chang, Li Chang, Ruixue Li and Yinggen Ouyang

Abstract  

In the first part, LiCl-KCl-UCl3 and LiCl-KCl-UCl3-UCl4 molten salts were prepared, which were studied employing cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry techniques, respectively. It was determined that the reduction of U(IV) to uranium metal takes two steps. Firstly, U(IV) is reduced to U(III). Then, the reduction of U(III) to uranium metal occurs in a step with a global exchange of three electrons. Cyclic voltammetry studies indicated that at low sweep rates, the reduction of U(III) to uranium is reversible. However, a mixed control of both diffusion and electrontransfer is observed as the sweep rate increases. The diffusion coefficient of U(III) and the formal potential of U(III)/U versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode in these two salt systems were calculated respectively. In second part, based on the data of the electrode processes of uranium ions, electrodeposition of uranium metal was carried out. Uranium deposits were prepared adopting a 304 stainless steel electrode in the molten LiCl-KCl-UCl3 and LiCl-KCl-UCl3-UCl4, respectively by employing suitable electrolytic techniques. The morphology of the deposits and the cross-section of the cathode were investigated by SEM. It was determined that at the beginning of the deposition process, uranium product alloys with stainless steel and forms a thin layer, and then uranium begins to grow adhering to the layer.

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Stomatal density (SD) and stomatal index (SI) on the abaxial flag leaf epidermis, gas exchange of flag leaves and yield of six wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars differing in drought resistance were studied in plant growth chamber. There were significant differences among cultivars in SD, SI, epidermal cell density (ED), photosynthetic rate (P n ), transpiration rate (E), instantaneous transpiration efficiency (ITE), shoot dry weight yield (Ys), grain yield (Yd) and whole growth season water use efficiency (WUE), but not in stomatal conductance (g s ). Wheat cultivars with moderate drought resistance had higher P n and Yd than cultivars with strong or weak drought resistance. SD was negatively correlated with ITE (r=−0.85) and WUE (r=−0.84), but not with P n , E and Yd. There were significant relationships between ED and Yd (r=−0.92), between SI and P n (r=0.84). These results revealed that breeding wheat cultivar only to raise drought resistance might cause yield decrease when water stress was not too severe. Wheat cultivars with lower SD might improve ITE and WUE, but P n and yield (Ys and Yd) were not influenced significantly. Greater ED was not beneficial to Yd. SI might be a criterion to use in selecting parents for producing high-yielding wheat cultivars.

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Abstract  

Multielement determination of airbone particulates collected on PTFE-membrane filters by XRF, and possibility of using this technique in Receptor Model analysis were investigated. In order to keep the background interference as low as possible, special emphasis was therefore laid on the setup of optimized analytical procedures for XRF measurement. An intercomparison between INAA and XRF methods was performed by analyzing the same filter samples.

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Abstract  

The concentration of certain toxic and essential elements in various raw materials of Chinese herbs and scientific Chinese medicine were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Correlation of these elements as they exist in the raw materials and in the prescription of medicine were investigated and the approximate intake of elements by patients were estimated. Values of elements determined both by ASS and INAA presented excellent agreement. The ranges of elemental concentrations were found to vary from 104 to 10–1 mg/kg in different kinds of herbs. All herbs exhibit extraordinary enrichment capabilities from the environment for elements such as Mn, Zn, Ca, K, Mg, Cd, Cu, Pb and As. Higher contents of Cd, Pb and As in herbs may be attributed to the uptake of these elements from polluted soil due to industrial and antropogenic activities. It was found that commercial scientific Chinese medicine, SCDBT, contains more elemental concentrations than that of herbs used in the prescription, which may indicate that possible contamination could be caused by unknown ingredients added in the process. A much higher toxic elemental content, such as Pb, Cd and As, has been found in CFH and the daily intake of these elements by the patient will exceed the PTDI values.

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Abstract

The combustion behaviors and kinetic parameters of three parent coals (A1, A2, and A3) and their blends (A1/A2 and A2/A3) have been evaluated under oxidizing atmosphere (O2 and N2 mixtures), using a non-isothermal thermo-gravimetric analyzer. The aim of this study is to investigate the interaction between the blended components during the process of co-combustion, and the effects of blending ratio and oxygen concentration (10, 15, and 21%) on combustion performance of blended coals. When high reactivity and low reactivity coals are co-combusted, double peaks are observed in the DTG curves, and significant interaction occurs in the temperature range between the two peaks (T p1 and T p2). The activation energies obtained by Coats–Redfern method indicate that the activation energies of blended coals are lower than that of parent coals. The combustibility index S is used to evaluate the combustion performance of blended coals, and the results show the non-additive effects of the combustion characteristics of blended coals. The increased oxygen concentration results in a significant improvement of combustion performance of blended coals. In addition, as the blending ratio of high reactivity coal is increased, the oxygen can greatly enhance the combustion stability of blended coals.

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Abstract  

A TiO2/monazite photocatalyst was prepared by embedding TiO2 nanoparticles into a monazite substrate surface. TiCl4 hydrolysis/citric acid chelating procedure under acidic conditions were used to synthesize the nanophase TiO2 particles. The anatase TiO2/monazite photocatalyst surface area, morphology, crystalline and elemental concentrations were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Monazite contains a large amount of Ce-, La-, Nd- and Th-PO4 compounds; it has been known as a natural mineral material with minor radioactivity. TiO2-CeO2 composite is a kind of radiation sensitive photocatalyst in which the radiations of thorium nuclides give energy to trigger TiO2 and cerium ions which play an energy absorber with charge separator. The result showed that methylene blue and phenol were spontaneously photocatalytic decomposed by TiO2/monazite composite even in a dark environment. A synergistic effect was also examined with applied exterior UV or 60Co irradiation. A hybrid mechanism is proposed; according by the radioluminescence (RL) from excited Ce ion by γ-radiation soliciting CeO2/TiO2 heterojunction (HJ). This seems to be a possible mechanism to explain this self-activated photo-catalytic behavior.

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Abstract  

A method of efficiency calibration for the measurement of 88Kr and 138Xe by HPGe γ-spectrometer is proposed in the present paper. The question for the efficient calibration is, how to achieve homogeneous sources of 88Kr-88Rb and 138Xe-138Cs. The fission product gases were obtained by irradiating a precisely measured amount of U3O8 (90% 235U) filled in a quartz glass ampoule. Source cell was first filled up with stearic acid, and then the fission product gases were charged into it. Xenon and krypton are not adsorbed on stearic acid, therefore, homogeneous sources of 88Kr-88Rb and 138Xe-138Cs can be prepared. The results of the experiment demonstrate that the method is feasible and successful.

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Abstract  

The thermochemical decomposition of agricultural by-product corn cob impregnated with ZnCl2, as a precursor material for producing the activated carbons, was investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis at the heating rate of 5 and 10°C min–1 under a controlled atmosphere of nitrogen (60 ml min–1). The appearance of a peak in the differential thermogravimetric plot (DTG) in the temperature range of 400–600°C is significantly related to the extent of impregnation. The DTG curve of the sample impregnated with the optimal impregnation ratio of 175% (i.e., the ratio of ZnCl2 mass of 87.5 g in the 200 cm3 of water to corn cobmass of 50 g), which yields an optimal BET surface area of the activated carbon and displays a DTG peak at about 500°C. This may be partially due to the intense chemical activation and results in the formation of a porous structure in the activated solid residue. This observation is also in close agreement with previous results at optimal pyrolysis temperatures of 500°C and with similar experimental conditions. In order to support the results in the TG-DTG analysis, the development of pore structure of the resulting activated carbons thus obtained by previous studies was also examined and explained using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

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Abstract  

Nine rare earth citrate hydrates (RE(C6H5O7nH2O,RE=La, Nd, Sm) were prepared and characterized by chemical analysis, elementary analysis, thermal analysis and IR spectra. The thermal decomposition processes were studied by using TG-DTG and IR spectra techniques. Dehydration enthalpies and dehydration entropies of 3 neodymium and 3 samarium citrate hydrates were also determined by means of DSC.

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In traditional Chinese medicine, plants of the genus Peganum have been used to treat cough, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, jaundice, lumbago, and many other ailments. In this study, seeds of the plants of genus Peganum, including P. harmala Linn., P. multisectum (Maxim) Bobr, P. nigellastrum Bunge, and Peganum variety were collected from different provinces in China. A simple, rapid, and effective thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) fingerprint combined with bioautographic technique has been established for the identification of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors from these seeds. The methanol extracts of seeds were separated on silica gel plates with ethyl acetate-methanol-ammonia 10:1.5:0.5 (ν/ν) as mobile phase, and then the plates were inspected under UV 366 nm and visualized by spraying with both Dragendorff’s and vanillin-sulfuric acid reagents as well as by bioautographic assay. Moreover, the limits on AChE inhibitive activity of harmine and harmaline were found to be 0.01 μg, in comparison to that of galanthamine of also 0.01 μg. The TLC fingerprints combined with the bioautographic method could distinguish the seeds of the different species of genus Peganum investigated. Moreover, harmine and harmaline displayed similar AChE inhibition compared to galanthamine.

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