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Abstract

In this paper, we analyzed data relating to the language of papers written by winners of Nobel Prizes in physics before they won the prize and their journals of publication, and we identified the change in scientific language corresponding with shifts of the center of the scientific world. Using the science citation index as the main data source, we also collected information on the distribution of prize-winning scientists by country, by each scientist's number of published papers, and by language. We then analyzed their papers in terms of the different journals based in different countries. The results are presented in three parts: (1) the main languages used in the papers are English and German. The proportion of papers in English is gradually increasing, while that of papers in German is decreasing. (2) The prize winning scientists’ papers have been published mainly in journals in their own nation and in the United States. (3) Journals based in their own countries are very helpful to these scientists early in their careers.

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Summary  

Direct analysis of airborne particulate matter collected on PTFE-membrane filters was performed using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF). Standard filter samples prepared in the laboratory were utilized to evaluate the setup performance as well as the capability of the proposed method. The influence of experimental parameters including the beam size and sample-to-detector distance were thoroughly examined. A total of 10 elements on the filter can be determined. It was found that the optimum detection efficiency for the system can be achieved if using a 3 mm´3 mm beam size as well as a 7 cm sample-to-detector distance with a two-step measurement procedure with photon energy less than 7 keV and 14 keV, respectively.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Chao-Yang Wang, Yu-Chen Wu, Chen-Hsiang Su, Pai-Cheng Lin, Chih-Hung Ko, and Ju-Yu Yen

Introduction

This study evaluates the association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and the role of behavior inhibition in young adults.

Methods

We recruited 87 people with IGD and a control group of 87 people without a history of IGD. All participants underwent a diagnostic interview based on the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IGD and GAD criteria, and completed a questionnaire on behavior inhibition, depression, and anxiety.

Results

Logistic regression revealed that adults with GAD were more likely (odds ratio = 8.11, 95% CI = 1.78−37.09) to have IGD than those without it. The OR decreased when controlling for behavior inhibition. IGD subjects with GAD had higher depressive and anxiety score than those without GAD.

Conclusions

GAD was associated with IGD. Comorbid GAD can contribute to higher emotional difficulty. GAD should be well-assessed and interventions planned when treating young adults with IGD. Behavioral inhibition confounds the association between GAD and IGD. Further study is necessary to evaluate how to intervene in behavioral inhibitions to attenuate the risk of GAD and IGD comorbidity.

Open access
Acta Chromatographica
Authors: Su Lian-Lin, Cheng Xue, Ding Xi-Yan, Mao Chun-Qin, Lu Tu-Lin, Hao Min, Li Ping, and Qin Sirui

In this research study, a rapid, sensitive, and specific high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI–MS/MS) method was established and validated, in regard to the simultaneous quantification of five sedative and hypnotic lignans (schisandrin, schisandrol B, schisantherin A, deoxyschisandrin, and schisandrin B) in various tissues of rats (including heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney). The purpose of the study was to clarify the tissue distribution of the total lignans extract of Schisandra chinensis (SC). Then, the analytes were separated on a MERCK Purospher STAR LP C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), with a mobile phase consisting of 0.05% (v/v) formic acid acetonitrile, and 0.05% (v/v) formic acid water, and a flow rate of 1 mL/min. All of the calibration curves of the five components showed good linearity (r > 0.9950), with ranges of 4.8 to 1920 ng/mL for analytes. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation [RSD] %) were within 13.76% for all of the analytes. The average recoveries of the five analytes were greater than 85.23%, and the mean value of the matrix effect ranged from 82.3% to 93.4%. The five analytes were confirmed to be stable during the storage, preparation, and analytic procedures. The major target tissues of the total lignans extract of the SC in the rats were the livers and kidneys.

Open access
Scientometrics
Authors: Jun Yuan, Wei Yue, Cheng Su, Zheng Wu, Zheng Ma, Yun Pan, Nan Ma, Zhi Hu, Fei Shi, Zheng Yu, and Yi Wu

Abstract  

This research intends to investigate the patent activity on water pollution and treatment in China (1985–2007), and then compares the results with patents data about Triadic patents, South Korea, Brazil and India over the same periods, patents data were collected from Derwent World Patents Index between 1985 and May 2008. For this study, 169,312 patents were chosen and examined. Total volume of patents, technology focus, assignee sector, priority date and the comparison with other countries are analyzed. It is found that patents on water pollution and treatment filed at China have experienced a remarkable increase and the increase rate of patents filed at China change simultaneous with the percentage of domestic applications. However, the number of high quality Triadic patents with priority country as China remains small. Furthermore, in addition to individual patent assignees, both Chinese universities and enterprises also play important roles in patent activity of water pollution and treatment. In addition, the pattern of South Korea’s development can provide short-term implications for China and the regularity in Triadic patents’ development can provide some guidance to China’s long-term development. In contrast, the development pattern of Brazil and India is less influential to China’s development. Furthermore, China’s technology focuses on water pollution and treatment seem to parallel global and triadic patent trends. This research provides a comprehensive picture of China’s innovation capability in the area of water pollution and treatment. It will help China’s local governments to improve their regional S&T capability and will provide support the National Water Pollution Control and Treatment Project in China.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Ji-Bin Li, Phoenix K. H. Mo, Joseph T. F. Lau, Xue-Fen Su, Xi Zhang, Anise M. S. Wu, Jin-Cheng Mai, and Yu-Xia Chen

Background and aims

The aim of this study is to estimate the longitudinal associations between online social networking addiction (OSNA) and depression, whether OSNA predicts development of depression, and reversely, whether depression predicts development of OSNA.

Methods

A total of 5,365 students from nine secondary schools in Guangzhou, Southern China were surveyed at baseline in March 2014, and followed up 9 months later. Level of OSNA and depression were measured using the validated OSNA scale and CES-D, respectively. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to estimate the longitudinal associations between OSNA and depression.

Results

Adolescents who were depressed but free of OSNA at baseline had 1.48 times more likely to develop OSNA at follow-up compared with those non-depressed at baseline [adjusted OR (AOR): 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14–1.93]. In addition, compared with those who were not depressed during the follow-up period, adolescents who were persistently depressed or emerging depressed during the follow-up period had increased risk of developing OSNA at follow-up (AOR: 3.45, 95% CI: 2.51–4.75 for persistent depression; AOR: 4.47, 95% CI: 3.33–5.99 for emerging depression). Reversely, among those without depression at baseline, adolescents who were classified as persistent OSNA or emerging OSNA had higher risk of developing depression compared with those who were no OSNA (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.01–2.69 for persistent OSNA; AOR: 4.29; 95% CI: 3.17–5.81 for emerging OSNA).

Conclusion

The findings indicate a bidirectional association between OSNA and depression, meaning that addictive online social networking use is accompanied by increased level of depressive symptoms.

Open access
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Shyh-Jen Wang, Tsai-Yueh Lo, Bor-Tsung Hsieh, Kai-Yuan Cheng, Wan-Yu Lin, Lie-Hang Shen, and Ming-Ja Su
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