During the past few decades, foreign investment has rapidly increased worldwide and has enhanced economic growth in developing countries. Although foreign investment brings huge economic benefits, many developing countries fear that by opening up markets to competition and foreign investment without restriction, they will lose control of their strategic industries. Among those industries, telecommunications is a sector with substantial impact and influence on national security, social stability and economic development. Therefore, the balance between economic gains from foreign investment and national telecommunications sovereignty presents a challenging task. A proposed international investment agreement has been negotiated in international community to possibly solve many of the disputes between foreign investment and national sovereignty. However, is foreign investment a necessary mechanism for developing countries to promote their economic growth? With different developmental models and a myriad of different economic difficulties, is a uniform global investment instrument suitable to meet the different demands for developing countries? This article will examine current international investment regime and their relation with telecommunications as an influence in developing countires. Assessing these crtitical issues, this article hopes to find a new poisition for telecommunications in a formingly integrated global market.
Authors:Yuen-Hsien Tseng, Yu-I Lin, Yi-Yang Lee, Wen-Chi Hung, and Chun-Hsiang Lee
In scientometrics for trend analysis, parameter choices for observing trends are often made ad hoc in past studies. For examples,
different year spans might be used to create the time sequence and different indices were chosen for trend observation. However,
the effectiveness of these choices was hardly known, quantitatively and comparatively. This work provides clues to better
interpret the results when a certain choice was made. Specifically, by sorting research topics in decreasing order of interest
predicted by a trend index and then by evaluating this ordering based on information retrieval measures, we compare a number
of trend indices (percentage of increase vs. regression slope), trend formulations (simple trend vs. eigen-trend), and options
(various year spans and durations for prediction) in different domains (safety agriculture and information retrieval) with
different collection scales (72500 papers vs. 853 papers) to know which one leads to better trend observation. Our results
show that the slope of linear regression on the time series performs constantly better than the others. More interestingly,
this index is robust under different conditions and is hardly affected even when the collection was split into arbitrary (e.g.,
only two) periods. Implications of these results are discussed. Our work does not only provide a method to evaluate trend
prediction performance for scientometrics, but also provides insights and reflections for past and future trend observation
Authors:Sheng-Hung Wu, Jen-Hao Chi, Chun-Chin Huang, Nung-Kai Lin, Jiou-Jhu Peng, and Chi-Min Shu
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), historically, due to its broad applications in the chemical industries, has caused many serious fires and explosions worldwide.
Its thermal hazards may also be incurred by an incompatible reaction with other chemical materials, and a runaway reaction
may be induced in the last stage. This study applied thermal analytical methods to explore the H2O2 leading to thermal accidents by incompatibility and to discuss what might be formed by the upset situations. In this study,
the thermal hazard analyses were conducted with various solvents, propanone (CH3COCH3), Fe2O3, FeSO4, H2SO4, HCl, HNO3, H3PO4, NaOH, LiOH, and KOH which were deliberately selected to individually mix with H2O2 for investigating the degree of hazard. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to evaluate the thermal hazard
of H2O2-mixed ten chemicals. The results indicated that H2O2 is highly hazardous while separately mixed with ten materials, as a potential contaminant. Fire and explosion hazards could
be successfully reduced if the safety-related data are suitably imbedded into manufacturing processes.
Authors:Chih-Hai Yang, Mei-Chun Cheng, and Chun-Hung Lin
This study examines the determinants of China’s outward direct investment (ODI) between 2003 and 2009. We first analyse the structure and dynamics of ODI. We propose three testable hypotheses including technology sourcing, resource seeking, and political linkage. Various estimates show that technology sourcing is supported moderately, whereas resource seeking serves one of primary driving forces. Crucially, the motive of political linkage is significantly related to ODI and it is particularly relevant to developing destinations. This finding indicates that China tends to invest in developing countries with high political risk, which is in contrast with the prediction of the FDI theory. Furthermore, a developing country with high political risk seems to be the favoured destination for China’s ODI to acquire technologies and resources.
Authors:Yi-Ming Chang, Mei-Li You, Chien-Hung Lin, Siou-Yuan Wu, Jo-Ming Tseng, Chun-Ping Lin, Yaw-Long Wang, and Chi-Min Shu
The prevention of fire and explosion is recognized as an imperative necessity that is a first priority in all operating management details of the chemical process industries. Based on significant research and original emphasis on loss control and disaster prevention, this study investigated the flammability characteristics, comprising the lower/upper explosion limit (LEL and UEL), maximum explosion overpressure (Pmax), maximum rate of explosion pressure rise [(dP dt−1)max], gas or vapor deflagration index (Kg), and explosion class (St class) of four acetone aqueous solutions [water vapor (steam)/acetone: 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, and 0/100 vol.%], and discussed the effect of inert steam (H2O(g)) on them. Interactive influences of various loading fuel concentrations and initial testing conditions of 150, 200 °C, and 101, 202 kPa on flammability characteristics were revealed via a 20-L-apparatus. Weighting analysis of the above influence factors was explored by employing the GM(h,N) grey system theory for rating their fire and explosion hazard degrees both specifically and quantitatively. The results indicated that the most important influence factor was the initial pressure that the manager or engineer in such a steam/acetone mixing system should consider to be well-controlled first. The second influence factor in GM(1,N) and GM(0,N) model was the initial temperature and steam/acetone mixing concentration, but the third influence factor was individual contrariwise. This study established a complete flammability hazard evaluation approach that is combined with an experimentally and theoretically feasible way for fire/explosion prevention and protection. The outcomes would be useful for positive decisions for safety assessment for the relevant practical plants or processes.