Authors:Tsuey-Lin Tsai, Chun-Chih Lin, Tsung-Yuan Wang, Hwa-Jou Wei and Lee-Chung Men
A rapid, accurate and less labor intensive approach to determining 226Ra in environmental samples was examined; this utilized quadrupole-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS).
The procedure used chemical separation by ion exchange chromatography to remove most of the matrices after coprecipitation
with BaSO4. The average chemical recovery of the NIST SRM preparation method ranged from 60.5 to 85.9% using 133Ba as internal tracer by gamma counting. This technique was capable of completing a 226Ra measurement within 3 min. It did not require an in-growth period to allow radon and its progeny to achieve secular equilibrium
with the parent 226Ra as is needed for liquid scintillation analyzer (LSA). The method detection limits for the determination of 226Ra in geothermal water and sediment samples were 0.02 mBq L−1 (0.558 fg L−1) and 0.10 Bq kg−1 (2.79 fg g−1), respectively. The results obtained with various natural samples and the suitability of the method when applied to various
environmental matrices such as geothermal water and sediment are discussed. When ICP-QMS was compared to double-focusing magnetic
sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS), good agreement was obtained with a correlation coefficient,
r2 = 0.982.
Authors:Ai-Yih Wang, Chun-Liang Kuo, Jiunn-Liang Lin, Chao-Ming Fu and Yuh-Feng Wang
This study examined the applications of novel non-polymer magnetic ferrite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) labeled with 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTcO4−). The radiochemistry, chemistry, and biodistribution of Fe3O4 NPs labeled with 9mTcO4− were analyzed. This paper employed instant thin layer chromatography and magnetic adsorption to evaluate the labeling efficiency
and stability of 99mTc-Fe3O4 at various reaction conditions. A scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer,
laser particle size analyzer, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer were used to analyze the physical
and chemical properties of the Fe3O4 and 99Tc-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The biodistribution and excretion of 99mTc-Fe3O4 were also investigated. Radiochemical analyses showed that the labeling efficiency was over 92% after 1 min in the presence
of a reducing agent. Hydroxyl and amine groups covered the surface of the Fe3O4 particles. Therefore, 99Tc (VII) reduced to lower oxidation states and might bind to Fe3O4 NPs. The sizes of the 99Tc-Fe3O4 NPs were about 600 nm without ultrasound vibrations, and the particle sizes were reduced to 250 nm under ultrasound vibration
conditions. Nonetheless, Fe3O4 NPs and 99Tc-Fe3O4 NPs exhibited superparamagnetic properties, and the saturation magnetization values were about 55 and 47 emu/g, respectively.
The biodistribution showed that a portion of the 99mTc-Fe3O4 nanoparticles might embolize in a pulmonary capillary initially; the embolism radioactivity was cleared from the lungs and
was then taken up by the liver. 99mTc-Fe3O4 metabolized very slowly only 1–2% of the injected dose (ID) was excreted in urine and about 2.37% ID/g was retained in the
liver 4 h after injection. Radiopharmaceutically, 99mTc-Fe3O4 NPs displayed long-term retention, and only 99mTc-Fe3O4 NPs that dissociated to free pertechnetate could be excreted in urine. This research evaluated the feasibility of non-polymer
magnetic ferrite NPs labeled with technetium as potential radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine.
Authors:Tsing-Hai Wang, Wen-Chun Yeh, Shih-Chin Tsai, Yi-Lin Jan and Shi-Ping Teng
We have examined the working diameter of capillary columns with diameter of 5, 7, 10 and 20 mm. These modified capillary columns
were carefully filled with local Taiwan laterite (LTL). The porosity and density of these packed columns was 0.51±0.02 g/g
and 1.27±0.05 g/cm3, respectively. The diffusion experiments were then carried out in synthetic groundwater with Cs loading of 0.1mM at room
temperature. Experimental results have shown that the diffusion profiles of modified capillary columns fit Fick’s second law
very well. This result revealed that the working diameter of a capillary column can be expanded to at least to 20 mm without
affecting the validity of the derived diffusion coefficients. Among these columns, the ones with 5 mm diameter show the most
consistent results of the derived Kd, apparent and effective diffusion coefficients. Although the derived distribution and effective diffusion coefficients slightly
decrease as the diameter of these columns increases due to the increase of the solid/liquid ratio. These values are still
informative of the Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite. Moreover, our results clearly demonstrate the potential of using
“modified capillary method” to study the diffusion behaviors of concerned radionuclide because columns with large diameter
enable the filling with more versatile geological substances.
Authors:Yi-Ming Chang, Mei-Li You, Jo-Ming Tseng, Yaw-Long Wang, Chun-Ping Lin and Chi-Min Shu
The effect of initial temperatures (100, 150, and 200 °C), operating pressures (101 and 202 kPa), and various loading oxygen
concentrations (21, 17, 14…oxygen vol.%) on the flammability hazard evaluations for the mixtures of benzene and methanol (100/0,
75/25, 50/50, 25/75, and 0/100 vol.%) by using rough set method, was studied. The results indicated that the most important
influence factor was the operating pressure. There is no significant difference in the safety assessment for the different
concentrations of mixtures. This study proposed a helpful reference for a related practical plant combined with experimentally
and theoretically feasible way for flammability prevention and protection.
Authors:Shih-Chin Tsai, Tsing-Hai Wang, Yuan-Yaw Wei, Wen-Chun Yeh, Yi-Lin Jan and Shi-Ping Teng
In this present work, the kinetic reaction constants including the forward (kf, Cs adsorption onto granite) and backward (kb,
Cs desorption from granite) rate constants of Cs on granite were determined by fitting the experimental data from both adsorption
and desorption experiments with a pseudo first-order reaction model. In the case of Cs adsorption, both forward and backward
rate constants are consistent with one another as Cs loading less than 0.1 mM. In contrast, both forward and backward reaction
constants from desorption experiment dramatically increase as the Cs loading increases. Rearrangement of these desorption
data by linearization technique, a notable instantaneous desorption process appears, which profoundly influences the determination
of the rate constants. Based on our fitting results, the rate constants including both forward and backward reactions determined
from Cs adsorption onto granite are much suitable to represent the adsorption behavior, in which the recommended values are
of 0.42 and 0.03 h−1, respectively.
Authors:Yi-Ming Chang, Mei-Li You, Chien-Hung Lin, Siou-Yuan Wu, Jo-Ming Tseng, Chun-Ping Lin, Yaw-Long Wang and Chi-Min Shu
The prevention of fire and explosion is recognized as an imperative necessity that is a first priority in all operating management details of the chemical process industries. Based on significant research and original emphasis on loss control and disaster prevention, this study investigated the flammability characteristics, comprising the lower/upper explosion limit (LEL and UEL), maximum explosion overpressure (Pmax), maximum rate of explosion pressure rise [(dP dt−1)max], gas or vapor deflagration index (Kg), and explosion class (St class) of four acetone aqueous solutions [water vapor (steam)/acetone: 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, and 0/100 vol.%], and discussed the effect of inert steam (H2O(g)) on them. Interactive influences of various loading fuel concentrations and initial testing conditions of 150, 200 °C, and 101, 202 kPa on flammability characteristics were revealed via a 20-L-apparatus. Weighting analysis of the above influence factors was explored by employing the GM(h,N) grey system theory for rating their fire and explosion hazard degrees both specifically and quantitatively. The results indicated that the most important influence factor was the initial pressure that the manager or engineer in such a steam/acetone mixing system should consider to be well-controlled first. The second influence factor in GM(1,N) and GM(0,N) model was the initial temperature and steam/acetone mixing concentration, but the third influence factor was individual contrariwise. This study established a complete flammability hazard evaluation approach that is combined with an experimentally and theoretically feasible way for fire/explosion prevention and protection. The outcomes would be useful for positive decisions for safety assessment for the relevant practical plants or processes.
Authors:Xiang-Rong Xu, Fu-Qing Tan, Jun-Quan Zhu, Ting Ye, Chun-Lin Wang, Yi-Feng Zhu, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Fan Jin and Wan-Xi Yang
We used single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) to detect the integrity of sperm DNA of the teleost large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea, cryopreserved with Cortland solution and a range of 5% to 30% DMSO concentrations in order to test how sperm cryopreservation affected the DNA stability of nuclei. Electrophoresis was conducted for 60 min at 130 mA and 15 V. The comet images were analyzed with software CometScore 1.5, and parameters such as comet length, tail length and percentage DNA in the tail were obtained. Then the comet rate and damage coefficient were calculated. Results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in motility, comet rate and damage coefficient between fresh sperm and cryopreserved sperm stored in 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% DMSO, while the sperm cryopreserved with 25% and 30% DMSO had a lower motility, higher comet length and damage coefficients than those of fresh sperm. There was a positive correlation between comet rate of cryopreserved sperm and the concentration of DMSO. Our results demonstrate that toxicity of the cryoprotectant is the main cause of DNA damage in cryopreserved sperm nuclei.
Authors:Yi-Lin Jan, Tsing-Hai Wang, Ming-Hsu Li, Shih-Chin Tsai, Yuan-Yaw Wei, Chun-Nan Hsu and Shi-Ping Teng
A good understanding of the migration of selenite, Se(IV), through deep granitic layers depends on a good understanding of
the geochemistry of these layers. Chemical sequential extraction is applied herein to evaluate the ability of granite to adsorb
Se(IV) in DW, GW and SW systems. The experimental results indicate that the removal of crystalline Fe oxides reduces the adsorption
of Se(IV), suggesting its importance in granite. The normalized concentrations of Se(IV) adsorbed onto crystalline Fe oxides
is approximately 0.0301, 0.0330 and 0.0335 mole Se(IV) adsorbed/mole of Fe in DW, GW and SW systems. Kinetic adsorption experiments
are conducted to elucidate the results of the chemical sequential extraction. Both the treated and the untreated granite take
the same time to reach their equilibrium, suggesting that crystalline Fe oxides dominate the adsorption of Se(IV). Meanwhile,
the one-site model suffices to simulate the kinetics of adsorption.