Authors:Chen Chunying, Lu Xiangli, Zhang Peiqun, Hou Xiaolin, and Chai Zhifang
Molecular activation analysis based on biological separation techniques combined with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to study the distribution patterns of 24 elements, including essential and unknown trace elements in the liver organelles. Concentrations of As, Au, Co, I, Mg, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and Th were found to be the highest in nuclei and mitochondria, while those of Br, Cl, Cs, Cu, K, Na, Rb and V were found to be in cytosol. Concentrations of Al, As, Au, Ba, Fe, I, Sb were found to be the lowest in cytosol. The element As was mainly present in the nuclear fraction, where its concentration was two to four times higher than that in other fractions. Ca and Fe were highly enriched in the microsomal fraction.
Authors:Jiujiang Zhao, Chunying Chen, Peiqun Zhang, Zhifang Chai, Liya Qu, and Mei Li
Selenium and mercury distribution in porcine tissues and their subcellular fractions from a mercury-polluted area of Guizhou
Province and from a not mercury-exposed area of Beijing in China have been studied with neutron activation analysis and hydride
generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Both the selenium and mercury levels are higher in Guizhou porcine tissues and
their subcellular fractions than those in Beijing. These two elements are highly enriched in kidney and liver of Guizhou pig,
while selenium is only enriched in the kidney of Beijing pig. Exposure of mercury may result in redistribution of Se and Hg
in vivo. The Hg/Se molar ratio of the subcellular fractions is very low in the case of relatively low mercury level and gradually
reaches to a high constant value with increasing level of mercury, which implies that selenium and mercury may form some special
complexes in the organisms.
Nanosized copper particles are widely used in fields of lubricants, polymers/plastic, metallic coating and ink. Recently,
we found that copper particles in different sizes can lead to different toxicological effects. To clarify the target organs
of copper particles of different sizes, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was employed to evaluate
the distribution of copper in different organs of mice after a single dose oral exposure. The results suggest that the main
target organs for copper nanoparticles are kidney, liver and blood. Liver is the main damaged organ.
Recently, it was reported that the toxicity of copper particles increases with the decrease of the particle size on a mass
basis. To understand this phenomenon, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques and in vitro chemical
studies were carried out to explore how they produce toxicity in vivo. The results suggest that when the sizes of particles
become small and down to a nanoscale, copper becomes extremely reactive in a simulative intracorporeal environment. The nanosized
copper particles consume the hydrogen ions in stomach more quickly than micron ones. These processes further convert the copper
nanoparticles into cupric ions whose toxicity is very high in vivo.