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Abstract  

In this study the neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique was applied to determine Ca and Mg in whole blood from inhabitants of Brazil for the purpose of establishing concentration ranges indicative of sex and age. The initiative to perform these measurements is related to the increase in heart disease. According to recent statistics from WHO, the average is one death due to heart attack in Brazil, every five minutes. The measures were performed considering lifestyle factors (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure) of Brazilian inhabitants. A healthy group constituted of male (n = 94) and female (n = 84) blood donors, ages between 18 and 70 years and above 50 kg, was selected from the blood banks and hematological laboratories of Brazil. The influence of sex was also investigated considering several age ranges (18–29, 30–40, 41–50, >50 years). The results show significant differences when a comparison is made by sex and age and may be useful to identify or prevent clinical diseases. These results emphasize the need to perform periodic evaluation of Ca and Mg in blood.

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Abstract  

The World Health Organization states that envenomation is responsible for a high number of deaths per year, especially in equatorial areas. The only effective specific treatment is the use of hyperimmune serum (antivenom). In Brazil, Crioula breed horses are used for antivenom production, with great importance in the maintenance of public health programs. A strict biochemical and metabolic control is required to attain specificity in antiserum. Inorganic elements represent only a small fraction of whole blood. Nonetheless, they play important roles in mammalian metabolism, being responsible for controlling enzymatic reactions, respiratory and cardiac functions and ageing. In this work, whole blood samples from Crioula breed horses were analyzed by EDXRF technique. The reference interval values were determined for the elements Na (1955–2013 μg g−1), Mg (51–75 μg g−1), P (523–555 μg g−1), S (1628–1730 μg g−1), Cl (2388–2574 μg g−1), K (1649–1852 μg g−1), Ca (202–213 μg g−1), Cu (4.1–4.5 μg g−1) and Zn (2.4–2.8 μg g−1) and a comparative study with NAA results was outlined. The samples were obtained from Instituto Butantan. Both techniques showed to be appropriate for whole blood sample analyses and offer a new perspective in Veterinary Medicine.

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Abstract  

The Amblyomma cajennense tick species is considered one of the most important and widespread species in Brazil. It salivary secretion has been a target of several studies in biocenology, as the vector of diseases and in investigations related to antihemostatic properties and antitumor. To complement this investigation, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied to determine concentrations of elements in saliva samples of this tick species. The saliva samples (50–554 μL) were collected at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brazil) and they were investigated using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN/CNEN-SP-Brazil. These data were compared with the values established for Amblyomma americanum and Amblyomma variegatum species emphasizing agreement only for Cl, K and Na with the A. americanum species, suggesting similarities in the mechanisms that regulate the osmotic pressure in this hematophagous animal. The knowledge of these limits contributes for tick saliva characterization as well as for the understanding of the many physiological processes, especially those related to salivary secretion.

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Abstract  

In this investigation ions in serum, urine and kidney of Wistar rats (control group) and Wistar with Acute Renal Insufficiency (ARI) were quantified using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The measurements in serum and urine were performed before, during and after ischemia-induced ARI. The measurements in kidney were performed for the control and ARI groups. Also, a comparative analysis between the concentration ratios before, during and after ARI was performed in urine and serum samples for both groups. The variations results for Cu in serum and I in urine, before and after ischemia-induced ARI, suggest that these elements must be also investigated in renal dysfunction.

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Abstract  

Element concentrations in biological tissues of Dmdmdx/J and C57BL/6 J mice strains were determined using the neutron activation analysis technique. Samples of whole blood, bones and organs (heart and muscle) of these strains were irradiated in the IEA–R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil). To perform this investigation biological samples of two-month-old adult females (n = 10) and males (n = 9) for Dmdmdx/J (dystrophic mice), and males (n = 12) for C57BL/6 J (control group), originally obtained from the Jackson Laboratory (Maine, USA) and further inbred at IPEN–CNEN/SP (São Paulo, Brazil), were used. A significant change was observed in the analysis of the heart of dystrophic mice suggesting that this dysfunction affects severely the heart muscle. These data may, in the future, contribute to the healthcare area, in veterinary medicine and in the pharmaceutical industry allowing the evaluation of the best procedures in diagnosis, treatment and investigations of neuromuscular diseases (muscular dystrophy) of patients through the use of animal models.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Cibele Zamboni, Sabrina Metairon, Laura Oliveira, Simone Simons, A. Chudzinski-Tavassi, and Daniella Oliveira

Abstract  

The determination of elemental concentrations for Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Sr, and Zn in blood samples from White New Zealand rabbits was performed applying the NAA technique. Twenty whole blood samples (12 male and 8 female) collected in research centers from Brazil (Aggeu Magalhães in Recife and Butantan Institute in São Paulo) were investigated, using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN/CNEN-SP-Brazil. These data can be used as references to perform biochemistry analyses in veterinary medicine using small quantities of whole blood (100–400 μL), simplifying the collection and the preparation of biological samples (it is not necessary to perform the serum separation nor to use specific reactants). Furthermore, the knowledge of the biochemical values in blood allows us to check the similarities with the blood estimations in human beings, which is an important condition for selecting laboratory animals. Finally, these data suggest a great similarity of the inorganic tissue profile of rabbits (White New Zealand) and humans.

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