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Authors: Claudia Marino, Alessio Vieno, Gianmarco Altoè and Marcantonio M. Spada

Background and aims

Recent research on problematic Facebook use has highlighted the need to develop a specific theory-driven measure to assess this potential behavioral addiction. The aim of the present study was to examine the factorial validity of the Problematic Facebook Use Scale (PFUS) adapted from Caplan’s Generalized Problematic Internet Scale model.

Methods

A total of 1,460 Italian adolescents and young adults (aged 14–29 years) participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed in order to assess the factorial validity of the scale.

Results

Results revealed that the factor structure of the PFUS provided a good fit to the data. Furthermore, results of the multiple group analyses supported the invariance of the model across age and gender groups.

Discussion and conclusions

This study provides evidence supporting the factorial validity of the PFUS. This new scale provides a theory-driven tool to assess problematic use of Facebook among male and female adolescents and young adults.

Open access
Authors: Natale Canale, Claudia Marino, Mark D. Griffiths, Luca Scacchi, Maria Grazia Monaci and Alessio Vieno

Background and aims

Vulnerability to stress appears to be a potential predisposing factor for developing specific internet-use disorders, such as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). Studies investigating the protective effect of psychological resilience against the impact of perceived stress on IGD and weekly gameplay have yet to be reported in the existing literature. The aim of this study was to examine the potential moderating relationships between perceived stress and online gaming (more specifically operationalized as IGD and weekly gameplay) with psychological resilience.

Methods

An online survey was administered to 605 participants (males = 82%, M age = 24.01 years, SD age = 6.11). A multivariate multiple regression model was applied to test for the possible contribution of perceived stress and psychological resilience to weekly gameplay and IGD.

Results

Perceived stress was associated with higher scores of IGD, whereas psychological resilience was related to lower scores of IGD. In addition, the combination of having higher perceived stress and lower level of psychological resilience was associated with a particularly high hours of gameplay per week.

Discussion and conclusions

These findings further support the importance of personal traits (perceived stress and psychological resilience) in online gaming (IGD severity and weekly gameplay), and also emphasize the unique moderating relationship between perceived stress and weekly gameplay with lack of resilience. Enhancing psychological resilience to decrease the likelihood of online gamers who experience higher level of stress from spending more hours per week gaming is recommended.

Open access
Authors: Claudia Marino, Elena Mazzieri, Gabriele Caselli, Alessio Vieno and Marcantonio M. Spada

Background and aims

There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that problematic Facebook use (PFU) is an emerging problem, particularly among adolescents. Although a number of motivations explaining why people engage in frequent Facebook use have been identified, less is known about the specific psychological needs underlying PFU. The aim of this study is to test a model designed to assess the unique contribution of psychological motives for using Facebook to the different PFU dimensions in a sample of adolescents.

Methods

A total of 864 Italian adolescents participated in the study. Multivariate multiple regression was run to test whether the four motives were differently associated with problematic dimensions.

Results

The results showed that the two motives with negative valence (coping and conformity) were significantly linked to the five dimensions of PFU, whereas the two motives with positive valence (enhancement and social) appeared to be weaker predictors for three out of these five dimensions.

Discussion and conclusion

In conclusion, psychological motives for using Facebook appeared to significantly contribute to explaining PFU among adolescents, and should be considered by researchers and educational practitioners.

Open access
Authors: Claudia Marino, Natale Canale, Alessio Vieno, Gabriele Caselli, Luca Scacchi and Marcantonio M. Spada

Abstract

Background and aims

In recent years, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been recognized as a mental health problem. Although research has found that social anxiety, motives, the preference for online social interactions (POSI), and metacognitions about online gaming are independent predictors of IGD, less is known about their relative contribution to IGD. The aim of the current study was to model the relationship between social anxiety, motives, POSI, metacognitions about online gaming, and IGD.

Methods

Five hundred and forty three Italian gamers who play more than 7 h a week (mean age = 23.9 years; SD = 6.15 years; 82.5% males) were included in the study. The pattern of relationships specified by the theoretical model was examined through path analysis.

Results

Results showed that social anxiety was directly associated with four motives (escape, coping, fantasy, and recreation), POSI, and positive and negative metacognitions about online gaming, and IGD. The Sobel test showed that negative metacognitions about online gaming played the strongest mediating role in the relationship between social anxiety and IGD followed by escape, POSI, and positive metacognitions. The model accounted for 54% of the variance for IGD.

Discussion and conclusions

Overall, our findings show that, along with motives and POSI, metacognitions about online gaming may play an important role in the association between social anxiety and IGD. The clinical and preventive implications of these findings are discussed.

Open access
Authors: Claudia Marino, Tatiana Marci, Lucrezia Ferrante, Gianmarco Altoè, Alessio Vieno, Alessandra Simonelli, Gabriele Caselli and Marcantonio M. Spada

Background and aims

Recent research used attachment theory and the metacognitive tenet as frameworks to explain problematic Facebook use (PFU). This study aims to test, in a single model, the role of different attachment styles and metacognitions in PFU among adolescents.

Methods

Two separate studies were conducted in order to establish the link between security (Study 1) and insecurity (Study 2), metacognitions, and PFU. A total of 369 and 442 Italian adolescents (age: 14–20 years old) participated in Study 1 and Study 2, respectively.

Results

Path analyses revealed the relative importance of different attachment dimensions with mother and father in predicting PFU and the mediating role of metacognitions between attachment styles and PFU.

Discussion and conclusion

In conclusion, since attachment styles and PFU may significantly affect adolescents’ development and well-being, the results of this study may provide some practical indications for researchers and practitioners.

Open access