In water quality research the interest in online biofilm monitoring techniques has recently increased significantly. Christiani et al. (2008) presented a simple electrochemical technique to monitor electro-active biofilm in soil, based on the cathodic polarisation of stainless steel electrodes. Authors present an improved method, in which stainless steel was replaced by copper. By using copper-zinc electrodes authors have shown difference in the electrical potential between sterilized and native soils even at low moisture content.
Long head of the biceps (LHB) is an intra-articular tendon component of the shoulder joint. The function of this tendon is
complex. First, it is an origin of flexion in upper limb, and second it plays role in joint stabilisation during shoulder
movements. Histological type of tendon tissues is connective tissue. The mechanical behaviour of connective tissue is primarily
determined by the composition and organisation of collagens. In tendons, type I collagen is the principal structural element
of the extracellular matrix, which acts to transmit force between bones or bone and muscle. Owing to the special localisation
of this tendon, the intra-articular mechanical forces affect it to a considerable extent. The LHB is known as a source of
pain in pathologic states of the shoulder joint. The goal of this study was to establish the calorimetric standards of the
LHB in different ages, and to observe the changes of thermal properties of collagen during lifetime. LHB samples were taken
from 38 cadavers (between ages 0 and 90 years) without macroscopic sign of shoulder pathology. DSC analyses were performed
with SETARAM Micro DSC-II. The thermal denaturation parameters varied between Tm (°C): 57, ΔH (J/g): 0.26 (age: 0 year) and Tm (°C): 62.92, ΔH (J/g): 1.28 (age: 90 years). The ageing of collagenous tendon tissue can be clearly followed in changes of thermal denaturation
properties. The knowledge of the ageing of normal collagen provides a good basis to analyse further the LHB pathology.
Twenty-six Bifidobacterium strains were isolated from human faeces. Seven strains were identified as B. bifidum, 4 strains as B. breve, 10 strains as B. longum, 2 strains as B. pseudocatenulatum and 3 strains as B. dentium by 16S rDNA analysis. The isolates from human origin showed strong adherence to the human tissue cultures. Three out of the 12 tested isolates repressed the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria. Utilisation of 9 commercially available oligosaccharides was tested by both Bifidobacteria and enteropathogens. Pro-, pre- and synbiotic food was made. Their effect was evaluated in in vivo feeding experiments, where healthy and antibiotic treated mice were used as test animals. During the four-week feeding period the composition of the colonic microbiota of the healthy mice did not change characteristically in any feeding group. However, the microbiota of mice in which it had been killed by antibiotic treatment was recovered by feeding with synbiotic food.
Osteonecrosis (ON) of the femoral frequently occurs after steroid medication. One of the final pathways leading to steroid
induced ON is thought to be pathologic fat metabolism. The pathobiological mechanism underlying the induction of fat metabolism
outslides by steroids leading to ON has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine the intraoperative
obtained gluteal fat tissue from ON patients with histology, gas chromatography (GC) and differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC) and to compare them with otherwise healthy patient’s samples. The histological sections showed no significant differences
compared with the control group. GC revealed that fraction of saturated fatty acids decreased in ON samples from mean values
of controls of 24% to 21, the polyunsaturated fraction from 20 to 14%. The monounsaturated acids showed an increase from mean
rate of 52% of the controls to 65% of steroid treated samples. DSC curves correlate with chromatographic analysis of the tissue
fatty acids (Steroid treated, heating between 0–100°C: Tm=5.7°C, ΔH= −15.8J/g−1; heating between −20–100°C: Tm= −9.96 and 5.85°C, ΔH= −59.17 and −16.2 J g−1. Non-necrotic, heating between 0–100°C: two separable transition with Tm=5.7 and 9.9°C, total ΔH= −20.8 J g−1; heating between −20–100°C: Tm= −10.9 and 4.95°C, total ΔH= −75.8 J g−1.)
Our preliminary findings are rather tendentious. Further investigations are needed with higher sample rate and under other
anamnestic circumstances too.
Avascular necrosis of human femoral head (ANFH) causes incongruity in the joint that leads to disability in patients requires
total hip arthroplasty (THA). Several etiological factors of ANFH have been proposed in the literature but there are cases
of idiopathic origin. We observed macroscopic variation in quality of the subcutaneous fat tissue in patients with ANFH compared
to patients with osteoarthritis or hip fracture during THA procedures.
The samples were analysed by histology, gas chromatography (GC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
Conclusion: the alteration in the fatty acid profile did not cause histological changes, however we could detect biochemical
changes using DSC and GC.
The osteonecrosis or avascular necrosis of the antero-superior part of the human femoral head (ANFH) often causes incongruity
in the hip joint and leads to severe pain and disability in middle aged patients. This abnormality often requires surgical
intervention, mainly total hip arthroplasty (THA). The possible pathomechanisms of ANFH are fat embolism, arterial occlusion,
fatty necrosis of osteocytes and intraosseous hypertension. Factors have been proposed in the literature that can lead to
this condition are alcohol abuse, steroid therapy, metabolic changes, dyslipidaemia. In some case we can not verify any factor;
these are the so called idiopathic ANFH cases.
We observed macroscopic variation in colour and consistency of the subcutaneous fat tissue in patients with ANFH compared
to osteoarthritis or hip fracture during THA procedures. Subcutaneous fat tissues during THA from a patient with ANFH due
to alcohol abuse were compared with an otherwise healthy patient who underwent surgery due to traumatic hip fracture. No histological
changes were notified in the size; shape of adipocytes and in the cells of the septae of the connective tissue. Gas chromatography
showed that the patient with alcoholic ANFH had less long chain fatty acids. DSC revealed, that in case of non-necrotic sample
as a reference, during heating between 0–100°C two separable transitions are with Tm=5.7 and 9.9°C, total ΔH= −20.8 J g−1. In −20–100°C range endotherms with Tm= −10.9 and 4.95°C, total ΔH= −75.8 J g−1 could be detected. In case of alcohol-induced avascular necrosis we have found endotherms between 0–100°C with: Tm=7.3°C, total ΔH= −26.9 J g−1, and heating between −20–100°C: Tm= −0.25°C, total ΔH= −103.3 J g−1 thermal parameters. The alteration in the fatty acid profile did not cause histological changes, but we were able to detect
it with analytical methods e.g. DSC and gas chromatography.