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Soil biological properties and CO 2 emission were compared in undisturbed grass and regularly disked rows of a peach plantation. Higher nutrient content and biological activity were found in the undisturbed, grass-covered rows. Significantly higher CO 2 fluxes were measured in this treatment at almost all the measurement times, in all the soil water content ranges, except the one in which the volumetric soil water content was higher than 45%. The obtained results indicated that in addition to the favourable effect of soil tillage on soil aeration, regular soil disturbance reduces soil microbial activity and soil CO 2 emission.

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Hallstattzeitlicher Tonaltar aus Vát

Angaben zu den „KultgegenstÄnden“ der Osthallstattkultur

Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors: A. Molnár and Cs. Farkas

Hallstatt period clay altar from Vát. Data on the cultic objects of the Eastern Hallstatt culture . A unique object was discovered during the excavation of a settlement of the Hallstatt culture at the Vát, Bodon-tábla site (Vas county, Hungary). The find, which the authors have interpreted as a “clay altar“, is in many respects similar to the firedogs of the Kalenderberg culture, yet it is different both in its size and ornamentation. The only real analogue to the object came from Styria, although clay objects that can be interpreted as altars can be found on the entire territory of the Eastern Hallstatt culture. Beside other similar altar fragments, the decorated baking surface of an oven was also found at the Vát site. The structure of the uncovered houses also attests to the uniqueness of the site.

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Applying antagonistic yeasts is one of the recent possibilities for controlling postharvest disease caused by blue mould (Penicillium expansum). In this work, antagonistic activity of several Kl. lactisstrains was tested against two strains of P. expansum. Three strains of Kl. lactiswere compared to three biocontrol yeasts: Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Sporobolomyces roseusand Pichia anomala. The investigations were carried out at 25 °C, 15 °C and 5 °C, applying different yeast cell densities and culture media. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences among the three Kl. lactisstrains. The inhibitory effect of the tested yeasts was different according to the applied mould strain temperature, culture medium and cell density. Application of antagonistic yeasts combined with reduced temperature enhanced the inhibitory effect. Direct relationship was observed between increasing cell density and the biocontrol efficiency of Kl. lactis. According to this work, Kl. lactisis a possible biocontrol agent.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: A. Taczman-Brückner, Cs. Mohácsi-Farkas, Cs. Balla, and G. Kiskó

Numerous yeasts are reported as being effective in controlling plant pathogenic moulds. By selecting new biocontrol agents, knowledge about the mode of action of mould inhibition is important. In our study, mode of action of Kluyveromyces lactis - successfully applied against Penicillium expansum in former studies - was investigated. According to the results, volatile compounds are supposed to play a role in restriction of mould growth. Antibiotic substances and killer toxins produced by the tested Kl. lactis strain were not detected.

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High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology, as a promising alternative of thermal-treatment and chemical preservatives, can be used to produce minimally processed foods. It has the advantage of affecting only non-covalent bonds of macromolecules in foods, and thus preserves nutritional components, taste, and flavour exceptionally well. However, HHP also influences enzymatic reactions of food. Although some of these changes are often beneficial, monitoring the potential effects of high pressure treatments — especially in the field of product and technology development — is essential. The aim of this study was to point out some parameters of high hydrostatic pressure technique (pressure, temperature, build-up time, holding time, number of cycles) that can substantially impact the sensory properties of treated products.

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The food industry utilizes a variety of stressors such as heat treatment to inactivate or prevent the multiplication of L. monocytogenes in foods. The aim of this study was to identify the extent to which pre-exposure to sub-lethal temperatures would induce temperature tolerance to 60 °C and result in increased D values.The D value of an avirulent L. monocytogenes strain (4ab No 10) was initially determined in Tryptic Soy Broth at 55 °C, 60 °C and 65 °C. The cells were pre-exposed to sub-lethal heat stress of 46 °C (for 30 and 60 min), 48 °C (for 30 and 60 min) and 50 °C (for 30 and 60 min). Then they were exposed to 60 °C and the D 60 values were calculated. The pre-treatment at sub-lethal temperatures enhanced the D 60 value of the strain from 3.03 min to longer times. The D 60 values increased as a function of pre-treatment time at 46 °C: after 30 min exposure it was 5.24 min, and 16.18 min after exposure to 60 min. Similarly, the D 60 value after 30 min and 60 min exposure at 48 °C was 6.72 min and 14.83 min, respectively. The D 60 value after 30 min and 60 min exposure at 50 °C, was 13.88 min and 11.16 min, respectively. Heat injury was found to occur in this L. monocytogenes strain under the experimental conditions.

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While in developed countries research findings are available on the estimation of the realistic number of different diseases and their economic impact at social level, in Central and Eastern European countries these country specific data are neither sufficient nor reliable. This study partially fills the gap and gives a picture of the real number of foodborne salmonellosis in Hungary. In the spring of 2017, a survey about diarrhoeal and foodborne diseases was conducted by interviewing 1001 adults (over the age of 18). Our survey showed that approximately 18 times more individuals are suffering from Salmonella infection than it is assumed under the national and international epidemiological database. Based on our estimation, the annual number of foodborne salmonellosis may range from 91 242 to 105 606 in Hungary. In this paper a methodology has been developed to estimate the true occurrence of this disease. Our results can be used to calculate the costs-benefit ratios of future salmonellosis prevention programmes and inform decision-makers on the effectiveness of Salmonella-related measures in the area of food safety.

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