Hallstatt period clay altar from Vát. Data on the cultic objects of the Eastern Hallstatt culture
. A unique object was discovered during the excavation of a settlement of the Hallstatt culture at the Vát, Bodon-tábla site (Vas county, Hungary). The find, which the authors have interpreted as a “clay altar“, is in many respects similar to the firedogs of the Kalenderberg culture, yet it is different both in its size and ornamentation. The only real analogue to the object came from Styria, although clay objects that can be interpreted as altars can be found on the entire territory of the Eastern Hallstatt culture. Beside other similar altar fragments, the decorated baking surface of an oven was also found at the Vát site. The structure of the uncovered houses also attests to the uniqueness of the site.
Soil biological properties and CO
emission were compared in undisturbed grass and regularly disked rows of a peach plantation. Higher nutrient content and biological activity were found in the undisturbed, grass-covered rows. Significantly higher CO
fluxes were measured in this treatment at almost all the measurement times, in all the soil water content ranges, except the one in which the volumetric soil water content was higher than 45%. The obtained results indicated that in addition to the favourable effect of soil tillage on soil aeration, regular soil disturbance reduces soil microbial activity and soil CO
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology, as a promising alternative of thermal-treatment and chemical preservatives, can be used to produce minimally processed foods. It has the advantage of affecting only non-covalent bonds of macromolecules in foods, and thus preserves nutritional components, taste, and flavour exceptionally well. However, HHP also influences enzymatic reactions of food. Although some of these changes are often beneficial, monitoring the potential effects of high pressure treatments — especially in the field of product and technology development — is essential. The aim of this study was to point out some parameters of high hydrostatic pressure technique (pressure, temperature, build-up time, holding time, number of cycles) that can substantially impact the sensory properties of treated products.
Applying antagonistic yeasts is one of the recent possibilities for controlling postharvest disease caused by blue mould (Penicillium expansum). In this work, antagonistic activity of several Kl. lactisstrains was tested against two strains of P. expansum. Three strains of Kl. lactiswere compared to three biocontrol yeasts: Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Sporobolomyces roseusand Pichia anomala. The investigations were carried out at 25 °C, 15 °C and 5 °C, applying different yeast cell densities and culture media. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences among the three Kl. lactisstrains. The inhibitory effect of the tested yeasts was different according to the applied mould strain temperature, culture medium and cell density. Application of antagonistic yeasts combined with reduced temperature enhanced the inhibitory effect. Direct relationship was observed between increasing cell density and the biocontrol efficiency of Kl. lactis. According to this work, Kl. lactisis a possible biocontrol agent.
Numerous yeasts are reported as being effective in controlling plant pathogenic moulds. By selecting new biocontrol agents, knowledge about the mode of action of mould inhibition is important. In our study, mode of action of Kluyveromyces lactis - successfully applied against Penicillium expansum in former studies - was investigated. According to the results, volatile compounds are supposed to play a role in restriction of mould growth. Antibiotic substances and killer toxins produced by the tested Kl. lactis strain were not detected.
Thermal stability of vegetative cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus plantarum was studied by counting viable fractions and determining DSC curves of their suspensions. DSC curves in the 5–99°C range showed a series of endothermic transitions between 50 and 60°C, where the heat destruction of cells occurred. Heat denaturation of DNA required a higher temperature than cell killing. Thermal death was strongly influenced by the pH, composition and NaCl content of the suspending buffer. A mathematical model developed by us enabled comparison of DSC peak temperatures and temperatures required for loss of viability.