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Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful clinical and research tool that, in the past two decades, has provided a great amount of novel data on the pathophysiology and functional consequences of human epilepsy. PET studies revealed cortical and subcortical brain dysfunction of a widespread brain circuitry, providing an unprecedented insight in the complex functional abnormalities of the epileptic brain. Correlation of metabolic and neuroreceptor PET abnormalities with electro-clinical variables helped identify parts of this circuitry, some of which are directly related to primary epileptogenesis, while others, adjacent to or remote from the primary epileptic focus, may be secondary to longstanding epilepsy. PET studies have also provided detailed data on the functional anatomy of cognitive and behavioral abnormalities associated with epilepsy. PET, along with other neuroimaging modalities, can measure longitudinal changes in brain function attributed to chronic seizures as well as therapeutic interventions. This review demonstrates how development of more specific PET tracers and application of multimodality imaging by combining structural and functional neuroimaging with electrophysiological data can further improve our understanding of human partial epilepsy, and helps more effective application of PET in presurgical evaluation of patients with intractable seizures.

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Abstract

There are numerous biological agents including bacteria such as Brucella suis, B. abortus, Francisella tularensis, Burkholderia mallei, Coxiella burnetii, Yersina pestis, Bacillus anthracis and Chlamydia psittaci, viruses such as Variola major and V. minor, Flavivirus and Hantavirus, and toxins such as Botulinum toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, Staphylococcus enterotoxin B and Trichothecene mycotoxin reported to have potential to cause illness via water consumption. In the recent years, biological threat prevention for urban water supply systems has been of special interest worldwide, thus, protection against biological agents requires adequate knowledge, available water treatment technologies and preparedness. In this review, the history of biological threat via public water supply, as well as selected early detection methods, prevention strategies and risk assessment models are detailed.

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The aim of the present study was to examine the infuence of hydrolyzed, nanofltered concentrate of the ultrafltered permeate (HNF concentrate) of acid whey on the quality characteristics of milk-based ice cream. Thermophysical properties were determined by differential scanning calorimeter, consistency was measured by oscillatory rheometer, and sensorial quality was evaluated by scoring method. It was concluded that the acid whey did not increase the melting of the product, and reduced the freezing point. Cryoscopic temperature, onset point, and glass transition temperature (Tg) gradually decreased as the quantity and proportion of acid whey increased in the ice-cream. Rheological results indicated that using HNF, acid whey produced more creamy and smooth ice-cream. However, because of its characteristic taste, maximum 20% of milk could be replaced by HNF acid whey in milk-based ice-creams.

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Recently, a PCR-derived method for serotyping Streptococcus pneumoniae has been devised to substitute the conventional antiserum phenotypic method. The method initially used a multiplex PCR reaction, dividing the isolates into 6 different groups based on the detected PCR gel pattern. In order to optimise and refine this crucial step, the Taguchi technique was employed, which can evaluate the individual effect of six parameters (in this case: primers, MgCl 2 , nucleotide mix, polymerase and buffer), with only 18 experiments; varying the parameter levels in an orthogonal matrix which suppresses the interactions between them. With this method, clear and sharp bands were observed in 5 experiments out of the 18, while the PCR did not work reliably in the remaining cases. In addition, the PCR-based technique could be rendered more economic by the 10-fold lowering of the quantities of two primers. The modified reaction yielded identical results to those obtained with the original method.Furthermore, we have designed serotype-specific primers for 11 new serotypes. The most important ones are those that can distinguish the very closely related, but equally important serotypes 6A and 6B.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Eszter Virág
,
Á. Juhász
,
R. Kardos
,
Z. Gazdag
,
G. Papp
,
Ágota Pénzes
,
M. Nyitrai
,
Cs. Vágvölgyi
, and
M. Pesti

Interaction of primycin antibiotic with plasma membrane, and its indirect biological effects were investigated in this study. The antifungal activity of primycin against 13 human pathogenic Candida ATCC and CBS reference species and 74 other Candida albicans clinical isolates was investigated with a microdilution technique. No primycin-resistant strain was detected. Direct interaction of primycin with the plasma membrane was demonstrated for the first time by using an ergosterol-producing strain 33erg + and its ergosterol-less mutant erg-2. In growth inhibition tests, the 33erg + strain proved to be more sensitive to primycin than its erg-2 mutant, indicating the importance of the plasma membrane composition in primycin-induced processes. The 64 μg ml−1 (56.8 nM) primycin treatment induced an enhanced membrane fluidity and altered plasma membrane dynamics, as measured by steady-state fluorescence anisotropy applying a trimethylammonium-diphenylhexatriene (TMA-DPH) fluorescence polarization probe. The following consequences were detected. The plasma membrane of the cells lost its barrier function, and the efflux of 260-nm-absorbing materials from treated cells of both strains was 1.5–1.8 times more than that for the control. Depending on the primycin concentration, the cells exhibited unipolar budding, pseudohyphae formation, and a rough cell surface visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
Cs. Molnár
,
Zs. Molnár
,
Z. Barina
,
N. Bauer
,
M. Biró
,
L. Bodonczi
,
A. Csathó
,
J. Csiky
,
J. Deák
,
G. Fekete
,
K. Harmos
,
A. Horváth
,
I. Isépy
,
M. Juhász
,
J. Kállayné Szerényi
,
G. Király
,
G. Magos
,
A. Máté
,
A. Mesterházy
,
A. Molnár
,
J. Nagy
,
M. Óvári
,
D. Purger
,
D. Schmidt
,
G. Sramkó
,
V. Szénási
,
F. Szmorad
,
Gy. Szollát
,
T. Tóth
,
T. Vidra
, and
V. Virók

The first version of the map of the Hungarian vegetation-based landscape regions were prepared at the scale of 1: 200,000 (1 km or higher resolution). The primary goal of the map was to provide an exact background for the presentation and evaluation of the data of the MÉTA database. Secondly, we intended to give an up-to-date and detailed vegetation-based division of Hungary with a comprehensive nomenclature of the regions. Regions were primarily defined on the basis of their present zonal vegetation, or their dominant extrazonal or edaphic vegetation. Where this was not possible, abiotic factors that influence the potential vegetation, the flora were taken into consideration, thus, political and economical factors were ignored. All region borders were defined by local expert botanists, mainly based on their field knowledge. The map differs in many features from the currently used, country-wide, flora-or geography-based divisions in many features. We consider our map to be temporary (i.e. a work map), and we plan to refine and improve it after 5 years of testing.

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