215 type specimens of 38
taxa (15 holotypes, 23 lectotypes and 177 other types) described by Sándor Jávorka, Ádám Boros and Zoltán Kárpáti from the Carpathian Basin and the Carpathians have been examined. Types are designated here, and 15 names validly published.
Two new species of the genus Sorbus are described from Hungary, illustrations and their distributions are presented. Both belong to nothosubgenus Tormaria (Sorbus latifolia group), putative hybridogenous apomictic species originated from a cross between a member of S. aria group and S. torminalis and occur sympatrically in dolomite slopes of the Bakony Mts (NW Hungary). One of them S. barabitsii is a stenoendemic species to the hill Malom-hegy above villages Márkó and Bánd where it grows in mixed forests of scree rocky slopes (Primulo veris-Tilietum) and in mixed karstic forests (Fago-Ornetum) of the north-facing slopes accompanied by other Sorbus species, such us S. aria, S. danubialis, S. graeca, S. pannonica, S. torminalis, as well as the local endemism S. veszpremensis. Population of the other species S. polgariana occurs in the valley Burok-völgy nearby town Várpalota (Királyszállás), where the majority of the individuals grow in mixed karstic forests (Fago-Ornetum), rocky beech forests (Daphno laureolae-Fagetum) and in the margin of closed thermophilous oak woodlands (Vicio sparsiflorae-Quercetum pubescentis) as well. This species grows sympatrically with Sorbus aria, S. danubialis, S. graeca, S. pannonica, S. redliana and S. torminalis.
A method for the preconcenration of strontium on loaded and unloaded polyurethane foams is described. Parameters affecting the extraction of metal ion, such as pH, reagent concentration and background medium have been investigated. The method can be applied to preconcentrate strontium from aqueous samples.
Authors:J. Somlai, Cs Németh, Z. Lendvai, and R. Bodnár
Coals mined in some regions of the Transdanubian Middle Mountains in Hungary have elevated concentrations of natural radionuclides as238U,226Ra, etc. Therefore, coal slags and ashes used for insulation of the school buildings may lead to high dose contributions on the students. In the city of Tatabánya one school was found where the external dose rates in the classrooms were of 500–900 nGy/h. In spite of the high external dose rates, the radon concentrations measured were small usually less than 100 Bq/m3.
Authors:J. Somlai, B. Kanyár, R. Bodnár, CS. Németh, and Z. Lendvai
A significant dose contribution on the population could be derived from coal slags used as isolation material. Extremely high natural activities are measured in the coal slag, derived from the region of the settlement Ajka, Hungary. In some buildings monitored, the elevated -doses were nearly 5–10 times higher than the world average ones. The annual average indoor radon concentrations from the slag exceeded 400 Bq/m3 and in some cases up to 1200 Bq/m3. Due to the elevated exposure and the radon concentrations in the dwellings the annual dose was estimated to 8–24 mSv/y more than 5–10 times of the world average one.
Authors:Cs. Németh, J. Somlai, Á. Nényei, M. Skrinyár, B. Kanyár, P. Németh, and K. Hoffer
Slags, derived from coal mined in the neighbourhood of the town Tatabánya in Hungary, have been used as filling and insulating material for buildings of houses, block of flats, schools and kindergartens. The slag samples come from here have elevated concentrations of 226Ra, (range of 850–2400 Bq·kg–1). Therefore, the external gamma dose rates at 1 m height were about four times higher than the world average. It has been found, based on the modelling, that the dose rate could be decreased with 70–80% using an appropriate thickness of concrete or barite-concrete layers.
Authors:Á. Máthé, K. Vörös, T. Németh, I. Biksi, Cs. Hetyey, F. Manczur, and L. Tekes
In this study one spleen-intact dog (A) and two splenectomised dogs (BSE, CSE) were infected with Babesia canis. All animals developed an acute disease characterised by fever, haemoglobinuria and anaemia, the latter being more severe in the splenectomised dogs. Fever and parasitised red blood cells were detected for three days after imidocarb treatment in the splenectomised animals. Haematological abnormalities included regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia (due to neutropenia and lymphopenia) in the acute phase, soon followed by leukocytosis, neutrophilia and left shift a few days later. Acute hepatopathy was detected in all dogs with elevated ALT activity, which was more seriously altered in the splenectomised dogs. Diffuse changes in liver structure and hepatomegaly were seen by ultrasonography. Liver biopsy and histology revealed acute, non-purulent hepatitis in the splenectomised dogs. Both splenectomised dogs were successfully cured after collection of 400 ml highly parasitised blood, proving that large-amount antigen production is possible with rescuing the experimental animals. Whole blood transfusion, imidocarb and supportive care with infusions, antipyretics, glucocorticoids and diuretics were applied. The spleen-intact dog clinically recovered after receiving supportive treatment, with no imidocarb therapy. Microbial infections developed in both splenectomised animals (BSE: haemobartonellosis, CSE: osteomyelitis caused by Escherichia coli), probably as a consequence of immunosuppression after splenectomy and glucocorticoid therapy.
Authors:B. Salamon, A. Tóth, P. Palotás, G. Südi, B. Csehi, Cs. Németh, and L. Friedrich
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing (at 450 or 600 MPa for 300 s) on microbial quality as well as on organoleptic properties of fish salad with mayonnaise during 26 days of storage at 5 and 10 °C. The salad contained diced smoked trout fish, mayonnaise, and different kinds of spices. These freshly made salads usually have only a couple of days of shelf life. The HHP treatment basically did not affect the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the fish salad with mayonnaise. At both storage temperatures, the HHP treated samples showed enhanced safety and increased shelf-life up to 3 weeks.
Authors:A. Mouwakeh, P. Radácsi, ZS. Pluhár, É. Németh Zámboriné, G. Muránszky, CS. Mohácsi-Farkas, and G. Kiskó
Nigella sativa L. (black cumin) is well known for its benefits in the field of traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and investigate the antimicrobial activity of cold pressed oil (CO) and essential oil (EO) of Nigella sativa L. on food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. The microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Nigella sativa crude oil (CO) and essential oil (EO) against 4 Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and 3 Gram-negative (Salmonella Hartford, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli) foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria occurring in food products. Total fatty acid composition of CO was analysed by GLC, while the EO was analysed by GC-MS to detect its active compounds. The results showed that the major fatty acid of CO was palmitic acid (C16:0), as saturated fatty acid, however, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the main unsaturated fatty acid. The major compounds of the EO were p-cymene and thymoquinone. The inhibition on all tested bacteria of EO was 10 times higher than of CO, and the lowest concentration value was observed in case of Bacillus subtilis (0.003%). Hence, results reinforce the ambition to apply Nigella sativa oils in food as natural preservative.
Authors:K.N. Hussein, L. Friedrich, R. Pinter, Cs. Németh, G. Kiskó, and I. Dalmadi
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bioactive compounds (BACs): linalool (LIN) and piperine (PIP) on chicken meat characteristics. The meat was treated with 500, 1000 ppm of BACs, vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C for 8 days. Physicochemical characteristics, lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), microbiological status, and sensorial (electronic-nose based) properties were investigated. Both BACs significantly increased the redness (a*) and chroma (C*) values in meat compared to increased lightness (L*) and higher TBARS in control. Although both BACs showed overlapping aroma profile, the E-nose was able to distinguish between the different meat groups. LIN with various dilution ratios, particularly 1:10 (v:v), showed in vitro growth inhibition against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Bacillus cereus, concomitantly Listeria monocytogenes required 1:80 (v:v) to be inhibited, and no inhibition was detected for Pseudomonas lundensis. In contrast, PIP at different dilutions did not exhibit inhibitory activity. Regarding aerobic mesophilic counts (AMC), less than 7 log CFU g−1 were recorded except for control showing higher log. Both BACs have potential to improve quality characteristics and increase the shelf life of meat and meat products.