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  • Author or Editor: Csaba Leitol x
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Managing waste becomes a much more complex task, when logistic changes have to be implemented to combine selective waste collection, needed to increase the rate of recycling, with traditional residual waste collection. This complexity is complicated further by the ever increasing choices of methods and technologies available for the treatment of collected waste.Using available resources efficiently, minimizing environmental effects and operation costs should be the guiding ideas behind optimization of a waste management system, even though often these ideas are in conflict with each other. In this phase of research those factors which have a major influence on system costs are analyzed.

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The EU has accepted the Waste Framework Directive (WFD) in 2008 setting a 50% recycling target for paper, plastic, glass and metal waste by 2020 and prescribing the obligatory initiation of selective collection by 2015 [1]. These targets are also embedded in the 3rd National Environmental Program of Hungary [2] and the new Waste Management Act proposal. This research is focused on identifying the factors influencing the efficiency of complex selective collection systems. The initiation of a selective collection system results in an increase in recyclables and a decrease in the amount of residual waste. The cost of complex collection system is mainly determined by time of collection and the length of the route of the garbage truck.

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Since EU accession Hungary is developing its waste management sector to meet EU criteria, but EU requirements for selective collection has been changed last year by accepting the new waste framework directive. Up to the very date 13 waste management projects were implemented and 12 other projects are under implementation in Hungary. This research is focused on the resource efficiency of the recycling potential of these projects and found that the already implemented projects need further significant selective collection infrastructure development either to meet new waste framework directive criteria or to utilize material recycling facility capacity already built in these projects.

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The residual waste has a high concentration of recoverable elements, which can be either recycled or recovered into energy in accordance with the waste hierarchy. One option is the implementation of mechanical biological treatment of waste, which has showed a steady progress in the recent two years in Hungary.

This paper analysis the relevant factors, which should be considered during the technology planning. The multi criteria analysis involves the economical environmental and external considerations into the technology assessment. Based on the results, the technology plan should be revised and adjusted.

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In the sorting plant examined during the research, the sorting of the selectively collected mixed packaging waste is done by hand. Studies were performed on the quantitative changes of the waste stream entering and leaving the sorting plant, the composition properties according to the particle size, and lastly the number of pickings. The amount of incoming waste has increased linearly over the years. The sizes preferred by the optical separators were the guideline during the measurements. Sixty percentage of all incoming waste falls in the ideal range of 70–350 mm, 20% in the range of <70 mm and 20% in the range of >350 mm. Because there are significant differences in composition and quantities as the seasons and months alternate, these results provide important information for engineers designing a mechanized technology.

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