Authors:IC Chiş, D Baltaru, A Dumitrovici, A Coseriu, BC Radu, R Moldovan and A Mureşan
Exposure to high altitude in hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is considered to be a physiological oxidative/nitrosative stress. Quercetin (Que) is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger against oxidative/nitrosative stress.
The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Que in animals exposed to intermittent HH (IHH) and therefore exposed to oxidative/nitrosative stress.
Materials and methods
Wistar albino male rats were exposed to short-term (2 days) or long-term (4 weeks; 5 days/week) IHH in a hypobaric chamber (5,500 m, 8 h/day, 380 mmHg, 12% O2, and 88% N2). Half of the animals received natural antioxidant Que (body weight: 30 mg/kg) daily before each IHH exposure and the remaining rats received vehicle (carboxymethylcellulose solution). Control rats were kept under normobaric normoxia (Nx) and treated in a corresponding manner. One day after the last exposure to IHH, we measured the cardiac hypoxia-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers: the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and protein carbonyl (PC) content, the activity of some antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], the nitrite plus nitrate (NOx) production, and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression.
Heart tissue MDA and PC levels, NOx level, and iNOS expression of IHH-exposed rats had increased, and SOD and CAT activities had decreased compared with those of the Nx-exposed rats (control groups). MDA, CP, NOx, and iNOS levels had decreased in Que-treated IHH-exposed rats compared with IHH-exposed rats (control groups). However, Que administration increased SOD and CAT activities of the heart tissue in the IHH-exposed rats.
HH exposure increases oxidative/nitrosative stress in heart tissue and Que is an effective cardioprotective agent, which further supports the oxidative cardiac dysfunction induced by hypoxia.