Zirconium phosphate as ion exchanger suitable for column operation has been prepared by mixing hot metaphosphoric acid solution
with a solution of zirconium oxychloride when the white insoluble phosphate separated out which was dried and purified. The
ratio of zirconium: phosphate was found to be 1:2. Separation of parent-daughter systems like115Cd-115mIn,144Ce-144Pr and210Pb-210Bi were carried out with this exchanger. γ-ray spectrum of the separated115mIn and the β-decay curve of144Pr and210Bi showed that all the daughter activities are radiochemically pure. The separation process in each case takes less than half
an hour and the yield is quantitative.
A new way of radiochemical separation of carrier-free115mIn from115Cd and132I from132Te over the column of zirconium oxide is described. Activities of Cd and In in equilibrium in dilute acetic acid solution
were bufferred with dilute sodium acetate and fed into the column at a pH 7, when cadmium activity passed out unadsorbed and
the115mIn was adsorbed in the column. A study of the γ-ray peak of the separated115mIn showed that the product is of high radionuclidic purity. Te-I pair was separated by passing the weakly acidic solution
of132Te and132I in the presence of AgNO3 and Na2SO3, through the column where both activities were adsorbed. Iodine was washed outh with 5% sodium thiosulphate solution and
the retained tellurium activity was later washed out with 6M HNO3. The β-decay study showed that the separated132I product is of high radiochemical purity. The processes took less than half an hour and the yields were quantitative.
Radiochemical separations of carrier-free210Bi and UX1 activities from210Pb and U, respectively, have been carried out using a silica gel column.210Pb was adsorbed in the column as molybdate and210Bi passed unadsorbed. Lead activity was next removed with 25 ml of 0.1 M HNO3. In the case of separation of UX1, the coloured carbonate complex of U was removed from the silica surface by washing with saturated sodium carbonate solution,
keeping UX1 retained, and finally UX1 was washed out with 25 ml of conc. HNO3. Studies of the beta decay of210Bi and the γ-spectrum analysis of UX1 has shown that the separated products in both cases are of high radiochemical purity. The processes in each case took less
than one hour and the yield was satisfactory.
Authors:K. De, J. Chatterjee, A. Das, S. Basu, and D. Basu
Two single doses of X-ray radiation, i.e., 75 cGy and 4.0 Gy were applied on male Swiss albino mice. Quantitative changes in concentrations of trace metals like copper, zinc, cadmium and chromium in the whole body irradiated mice skin at several post-irradiated time intervals were studied in comparison to that of control animals. Observations indicate that irradiation induce redistribution of trace metals studied in skin at different post-irradiation time intervals.
Authors:K. Ray, D. Mukherjee, S. Basu, and P. Mandal
When an aqueous solution of Na2[Mo(V)2O4EDTA] (ethylene diamine tetraacetate) was photolyzed in the presence of excess KBr and K2S2O8 at neutral pH, the complex was found to be oxidized due to the reactions of Br
, respectively. Oxidation of the complex was also observed due to the reactions of the complex with radiolytically generated Br
radicals. When the oxidation of the complex with SO
was conducted in an unbuffered solution, a chain reaction was observed in the oxidation of the complex. The time resolved kinetics for the formation and decay of different transient intermediates and the relevant rate constants were investigated with a flash photolysis technique, and a probable mechanism for the oxidation process was given.
Authors:K. Roy, S. Basu, D. Pal, S. Lahiri, and A. Ramaswami
95Tc has been produced through -particle activation of a natural niobium target. The carrier-free 95Tc radionuclide has been separated from the bulk target using tri-n-octylamine (TOA) diluted by cyclohexane as extracting agent and HCl, HNO3 as aqueous phase. Solid-liquid extraction has also been carried out with TOA impregnated Kieselguhr mineral acid system. Technetium-95 was recovered from the organic phase by stripping with 0.1M EDTA above pH 9.
Authors:M. Basu, R. Wandekar, S. Bharadwaj, and D. Das
Sr2CeO4 has been prepared by sol-combustion and co-precipitate routes and the resulting products have been characterized by XRD analysis.
The molar enthalpies of solution of Sr2CeO4, Sr(NO3)2(s) and Ce(NO3)36H2O(s) in 0.150 dm3 of (4.41 mol dm3 H2O2+4.23 mol dm-3 of HNO3) solvent as well as the molar enthalpies of solution of Sr2CeO4(s), SrCl2(s) and CeCl3(s) in 0.150 dm3of (1.47 mol dm-3 H2O2+3.05 mol dm-3 of HClO4) solvent have been measured using an isoperibol type calorimeter. From these results and other auxiliary data, the standard
molar enthalpy of formation of Sr2CeO4 has been derived to be -2277.33.1 kJ mol-1 at 298.15 K. This is the first reported thermodynamic data on this compound.
Authors:N. Das, Susanta Lahiri, D. Basu, and S. Bhattacharyya
Application of charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) for the detection of traces of titanium has been demonstrated. Experimental samples containing traces of titanium varying from ppm to ppb levels were prepared by coprecipitating it with aluminium hydroxide, subsequently converted to Al2O3. Titanium in Al2O3 were irradiated with 40 MeV -particles in the Variable Energy Cyclotron, Calcutta. The element was detected through the product radioisotopes,48V,47Ca,47Sc,51Cr,49Cr and48Cr, produced from various nuclear reactions such as (, pxn), (, xn), etc. Suitability of Al2O3 as diluent matrix for the element has been verified.
Authors:R. Singhal, M. Venkatesh, D. Wagh, H. Basu, T. Chavan, M. Pimple, and A. Reddy
Downcore variation of trace metals in sediment cores along the coastal line is one of the markers to assess the intrusion
of industrial pollutants into the aquatic environment. Fifty sediment core samples from the Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB), were
studied for the trace element content. MHB is a recipient of effluents from different industries situated all along its coast
around Thane–Belapur region. The average concentrations of Titanium (Ti), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu),
Zinc (Zn) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and complemented by analysing with energy
dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. In addition to this, depth profiles of K and Ca were also studied to assess the
homogeneity of the geological strata of the region. Trace metals such as Cu, Ni and Zn show enrichment between 16 to 28 cm,
whereas, uniform distribution through out the core was observed for K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe. Chronology of the heavy metal deposition
was predicated based on the average sedimentation rate (0.92 ± 0.08 cm year−1) derived using depth-wise 137Cs concentration profile in core of bottom sediment. The results of the analysis showed that MHB had received excess inputs
of Cu, Ni and Zn in the year 1981, 1988 and 1982, respectively. Surface concentration of Cu, Ni, Zn and Fe compared to the
reference site indicates moderate pollution in the recent years whereas for elements K, Ca, Ti and Mn, the values are normal
indicating MHB unpolluted for the latter elements.
Authors:R. Singhal, H. Basu, M. Bassan, M. Pimple, V. Manisha, D. Avhad, P. Sharma, and A. Reddy
Direct determination of uranium in the concentration range of 8 μg L−1 to mg L−1 in water samples originating from different geochemical environments has been done using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical
Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Uranium detection with 2–3% RSD (relative standard deviation) has been achieved in water
samples by optimizing the plasma power, argon and sheath gas flow. These parameters were optimized for three different emission
lines of uranium at 385.958, 409.014 and 424.167 nm. Interference arising due to the variation in concentration of bicarbonate,
sodium chloride, calcium chloride, Fe and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the determination of uranium in water samples
was also cheeked as these are the elements which vary as per the prevailing geochemical environment in groundwater samples.
The concentration of NaHCO3, CaCl2 and NaCl in water was varied in the range 0.5–2.0%; whereas Fe ranged between 1 and 10 μg mL−1 and DOC between 0.1–1%. No marked interference in quantitative determination of uranium was observed due to elevated level
of NaHCO3, CaCl2 and NaCl and Fe and DOC in groundwater samples. Concentration of uranium was also determined by other techniques like adsorptive
striping voltametry (AdSv); laser fluorimetry and alpha spectrometry. Results indicate distinct advantage for uranium determination
by ICP-OES compare to other techniques.