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The techniques of thermal analysis are used to determine the mode of decomposition of nickel carbonates doped by the method of coprecipitation. Nickel carbonate prepared by this method is basic in nature with the stoichiometryxNiCO3·yNi(OH)2·zH2O. Isothermal Thermogravimetry was applied to determine the mechanism of decomposition. Rising temperature Thermogravimetry (TG) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were used to study the effects of doping on the kinetics of the decomposition. Doping was found to strongly influence the kinetics of the decomposition. The kinetics of thermal decomposition of the doped carbonates were compared with conductivity studies. A compensation effect has been observed and is discussed, in the thermal decomposition of the doped nickel carbonates.

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Different thin-layer chromatography (TLC) systems were evaluated for analysis of 21 biologically important essential and nonessential amino acids in complex mixtures such as biological tissues and fluids. Amino acids were visualized on the layers by derivatization with ninhydrin reagent, and R F values were determined by slit-scanning densitometry. The five systems found to be most useful for analysis of amino acids were cellulose and silica gel high-performance TLC (HPTLC) plates developed with either 2-butanol-pyridine-glacial acetic acid-deionized water, 39:34:10:26, or 2-butanol-pyridine-25% ammonia-deionized water, 39:34:10:26, and ion exchange TLC plates developed with citrate buffer, pH 3.3. Using these five systems with ninhydrin detection, identification of all amino acids except for leucine and isoleucine in complex mixtures is possible, and quantification can be achieved if the amino acid to be quantified is well separated from adjacent components of the mixture. Example chromatograms are illustrated for separation and identification of amino acids in a snail tissue sample on a cellulose HPTLC plate.

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This paper reviews the use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for the analysis of neutral lipids and phospholipids in medically and economically important snails (gastropod molluscs). It updates and fills in unintentionally neglected papers from earlier reviews on this topic published in 1990 and 2006 in this journal, and extends coverage to lipophilic pigments for the first time. The review discusses all steps of the TLC procedure, including sample preparation, sample and standard application, layers and mobile phases, detection of zones, and quantification. Significant findings on the effects of temperature, larval parasitism, diet, and environmental changes on the lipid and lipophilic pigment content in the snails as determined by TLC as well as the results of other miscellaneous studies and advantages and future prospects are presented.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Bruce Steinberg, Edward J. Modestino, Lyle Fried, David Baron, David Siwicki, Eric R. Braverman, and Rajendra D. Badgaiyan


Addictive-like behaviors (e.g., hoarding and shopping) may be the result of the cumulative effects of dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter genetic variants as well as elevated stress levels. We, therefore, propose that dopamine homeostasis may be the preferred goal in combating such challenging and unwanted behaviors, when simple dopaminergic activation through potent agonists may not provide any resolution.

Case presentation

C.J. is a 38-year-old, single, female, living with her mother. She has a history of substance use disorder as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type. She had been stable on buprenorphine/naloxone combination and amphetamine, dextroamphetamine mixed salts for many years when unexpectedly she lost her job for oversleeping and not calling into work. KB200z (a pro-dopamine compound) was added to her regimen for complaints of low drive and motivation. After taking this nutraceutical for 4 weeks, she noticed a marked improvement in her mental status and many behaviors. She noted that her shopping and hoarding addictions had appreciably decreased. Furthermore, her lifelong history of terrifying lucid dreams was eliminated. Finally, she felt more in control; her locus of control shifted from external to more internal.


The hypothesis is that C.J.’s reported, behavioral, and psychological benefits resulted from the pro-dopamine-regulating effect of KB220Z across the brain reward system.


This effect, we surmise, could be the result of a new dopamine balance, across C.J.’s brain reward system. Dopamine homeostasis is an effect of KB220Z seen in both animal and human placebo-controlled fMRI experiments.

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