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Abstract  

Adsorption of uranium, as UO2 2+, and thorium, as Th4+, has been studied using a modified fly ash bed. Effects of pH and various ions like La3+, Fe3+, Ce4+, SiO3 2- etc., have been examined. Synthetic mixtures of UO2 2+ and Th4+ in different concentrations were passed through the bed and eluted separately with various selective reagents viz. ammonium carbonate, sodium carbonate and acetic acid-sodium hydroxide buffer. Separations of these elements at ppm level are shown to be very effective. The separation of uranium and thorium in the presence of lanthanides in monazite sand has been studied successfully. In the analysis of monazite sand, the oxalate precipitation has been avoided. The method is simple and of very low cost. The modified fly ash bed can also be used to remove uranium from contaminated water.

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Abstract  

The adsorption of lanthanum and cerium on modified fly ash bed has been studied. The effect of pH on the adsorption of both lanthanum and cerium by the bed material has been discussed. The exchange capacities of lanthanum and cerium have been determined. The method has been applied to monazite sand solution. The elution of both lanthanum(III) and cerium(IV) was studied using buffer and suitable eluting agent. The process is simple and may be considered as a low cost-methodology for separation of lanthanum and cerium.

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A number of samples from the pre-burning zone of a wet-process cement rotary kiln were examined by combined DTA/TG and XRD for estimation of spurrite (2Ca2SiO4·CaCO3). It was found that decarbonation temperatures of spurrite range from 1130 to 1190 K and they are 45 to 75 K higher than that of calcite occurring in the same sample. In the TG curves calcite and spurrite can be easily distinguished and accordingly both can be estimated from the same TG scan. Combined DTA/TG, supplemented by XRD, is a very effective method for qualitative and quantitative estimation of spurrite in cement rotary kiln materials.

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Physiology International
Authors:
DN Nandakumar
,
P Ramaswamy
,
C Prasad
,
D Srinivas
, and
K Goswami

Purpose

Glioblastoma cells create glutamate-rich tumor microenvironment, which initiates activation of ion channels and modulates downstream intracellular signaling. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs; a type of glutamate receptors) have a high affinity for glutamate. The role of NMDAR activation on invasion of glioblastoma cells and the crosstalk with α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) is yet to be explored.

Main methods

LN18, U251MG, and patient-derived glioblastoma cells were stimulated with NMDA to activate NMDAR glutamate receptors. The role of NMDAR activation on invasion and migration and its crosstalk with AMPAR were evaluated. Invasion and migration of glioblastoma cells were investigated by in vitro trans-well Matrigel invasion and trans-well migration assays, respectively. Expression of NMDARs and AMPARs at transcript level was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results

We determined that NMDA stimulation leads to enhanced invasion in LN18, U251MG, and patient-derived glioblastoma cells, whereas inhibition of NMDAR using MK-801, a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDAR, significantly decreased the invasive capacity. Concordant with these findings, migration was significantly augmented by NMDAR in both cell lines. Furthermore, NMDA stimulation upregulated the expression of GluN2 and GluA1 subunits at the transcript level.

Conclusions

This study demonstrated the previously unexplored role of NMDAR in invasion of glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, the expression of the GluN2 subunit of NMDAR and the differential overexpression of the GluA1 subunit of AMPAR in both cell lines provide a plausible rationale of crosstalk between these calcium-permeable subunits in the glutamate-rich microenvironment of glioblastoma.

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Abstract  

PbO based phosphate glasses having composition 40P2O5�12Al2O3�6B2O3�9PbO�xNa2O�(33−x)K2O (x=0−33) [F=Na/(Na+K)] have been prepared using conventional melt quench technique. Density, morphology, thermal expansion coefficient (α) and glass transition temperature (T g) were studied as a function of Na/(Na+K) ratio. Formation of transparent, bubble free and clear glass was observed up to x=18 mol%. Density was found to vary from 2.70 to 3.69 g cm−3. The significant changes were noticed in external morphologies at temperatures corresponding to softening, half ball and melting points under high temperature microscope for three compositions (x=0, 10 and 15 mol%). These glasses recorded the softening and half ball temperatures in the range 454–470�C and 523–576�C respectively and melting temperatures agree well with DTA studies within the experimental limits. Glass transition temperature showed a broad maxima while thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) a broad minima around Na/(Na+K)=0.54. This behaviour is explained on the basis of bond formation/phase separation.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
H. Naik
,
S. Surayanarayana
,
V. Mulik
,
P. Prajapati
,
B. Shivashankar
,
K. Jagadeesan
,
S. Thakare
,
D. Raj
,
S. Sharma
,
P. Bhagwat
,
S. Dhole
,
S. Ganesan
,
V. Bhoraskar
, and
A. Goswami

Abstract  

The 238U(n, γ)239U reaction cross-section at average neutron energy of 3.7 ± 0.3 MeV from the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction has been determined using activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The 238U(n, γ)239U and 238U(n, 2n)237U reaction cross-sections at average neutron energy of 9.85 ± 0.38 MeV from the same 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction have been also determined using the above technique. The experimentally determined 238U(n, γ)239U and 238U(n, 2n)237U reaction cross-sections were compared with the evaluated data of ENDF/B-VII, JENDL-4.0, JEFF-3.1 and CENDL-3.1. The experimental values were found to be in general agreement with the evaluated value based on ENDF/B-VII, and JENDL-4.0 but not with the JEFF-3.1 and CENDL-3.1. The present data along with literature data in a wide range of neutron energies were interpreted in terms of competition between different reaction channels including fission. The 238U(n, γ)239U and 238U(n, 2n)237U reaction cross-sections were also calculated theoretically using the TALYS 1.2 computer code and were also found to be in agreement experimental data.

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