Plant community diversity is a major research focus in community ecology. The relationship between diversity patterns and different diversity indices is important for developing and improving biodiversity protection. In order to fully understand multi-dimensional diversity patterns of the subalpine meadow on Heyeping peak of Luya Mountain, we used a systematic sampling method and set 150 1 m × 1 m plots in June of 2018. Based on an analysis of the subalpine meadow community on Heyeping peak, we measured multiple diversity indices, carried out a correlation analysis between diversity and environmental factors, and compared correlations among different diversity indices. The goal was to clarify the ecological mechanisms and variation among various diversity indices and environmental factors. The main results were as follows: (1) The species diversity distribution was uniform, the taxonomic level was narrow, functional differences were small, and different pedigree structures were present in each plot. (2) A stable correlation between pedigree diversity index (PD) and species diversity index indicated niche conservativism; the net relatedness index (NRI) of community lineage structure was significantly correlated with the nearest species taxon index (NTI), species richness, and evenness index, indicating that plant community composition in the study area is mainly affected by habitat filtration. (3) The average taxonomic distinctness index (Λ+) and the average taxonomic distinctness index (Λ+) had a stable correlation; only the functional richness index (FRic) and Patrick species richness index were closely related. (4) Among the selected environmental factors, only the forest line had a stable correlation with species diversity index and PD and showed a negative correlation change, indicating an “edge effect” distribution of species diversity in the study area. In summary, the forest line was the key factor affecting the distribution of species diversity in the study area and the species relationships within the community. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31400358).
Fusarium wilt of tomato is one of the most prevalent and
economically important diseases of tomato worldwide especially in tropical
regions. The aims of the present study were to isolate and characterize
Bacillus bacteria from tomato rhizospheric soil of various
regions in Iran and determine the isolates that exhibit high levels of
antagonistic efficiency against tomato Fusarium wilt pathogen,
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici
(Fol) and growth promotion activity. In this study, 303
Bacillus isolates were obtained from tomato rhizospheric
soil. Dual culture and volatile metabolite tests were used to screen for
antagonism of Bacillus isolates against Fol.
Among them, 20 isolates were found to inhibit pathogen growth by 67.77% and
33.33% in dual culture and volatile metabolite tests, respectively. Based on the
results of physiological tests and 16S rRNA and gyrA gene
sequence analysis of 20 effective isolates, 11, seven and two isolates were
identified as B. subtilis, B. velezensis and
B. cereus, respectively. The results of greenhouse
assessment showed that KR1-2, KR2-7 and A2-9 isolates which were characterized
as Bacillus subtilis, reduced the disease index to 16.67% and
promoted the plant growth by 80%. These isolates may serve as potential
promising biocontrol agents against Fusarium wilt of
The combustion energy of thioproline was determined
by the precision rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K to be ΔcU= –2469.301.44 kJ mol–1.
From the results and other auxiliary quantities, the standard molar enthalpy
of combustion and the standard molar enthalpy of formation of thioproline
were calculated to be ΔcHmθC4H7NO2S,
(s), 298.15 K= –2469.921.44 kJ mol–1
and ΔfHmθC4H7NO2S, (s), 298.15K= –401.331.54
Given that Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has tentatively been included in DSM-5 as a psychiatric disorder, it is important that the effect of parental and peer attachment in the development of IGD is further explored.
Utilizing a longitudinal design, this study investigated the bidirectional association between perceived parent–adolescent attachment, peer attachment, and IGD among 1,054 first-year undergraduate students (58.8% female). The students provided demographic information (e.g., age, gender) and were assessed using the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale and the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Assessments occurred three times, six months apart (October 2017; April 2018; October 2018).
Cross-lagged panel models suggested that IGD weakly predicted subsequent mother attachment but significantly negatively predicted father attachment. However, father and mother attachment did not predict subsequent IGD. Moreover, peer attachment had a bidirectional association with IGD. Furthermore, the model also demonstrated stable cross-sectional negative correlations between attachment and IGD across all three assessments.
Discussion and conclusions
The findings of the present study did not show a bidirectional association between parental attachment and IGD, but they did show a negative bidirectional association between peer attachment and IGD. The results suggested previous cross-sectional associations between IGD and attachment, with larger links among males than females at the first measurement point. We found that peer attachment negatively predicted subsequent IGD, which indicates that peer attachment plays an important role in preventing addictive gaming behaviors for university students.
The present study was performed to investigate the effect of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) treatment on defence activation in grape berries and to analyse its cellular mechanism. The results implied that BABA treatment at an effective concentration of 20 mM significantly inhibited gray mould rot caused by Botrytis cinerea in grape berries by inducing resistance. Accordingly, 20 mM BABA triggered a priming defence in grape suspension cells, since only the BABA-treated cells exhibited an accelerated ability for augmenting defence responses upon the pathogen inoculation. The primed cellular reactions were related to an early H2O2 burst, prompt accumulation of stilbene phytoalexins and activation of PR genes. Thus, we assume that 20 mM BABA can induce resistance to B. cinerea infection in intact grape berries perhaps via intercellular priming defence. Moreover, the BABA-induced priming defence is verified, because no negative effects on cell growth, anthocyanin synthesis, and quality impairment in either grape cells or intact berries were observed under low pathogenic pressure.
is the generally accepted D genome diploid donor of hexaploid wheat. The significance of
HMW-GS genes on bread-making properties of bread wheat has been well documented. Among them,
was thought as the pair with potentially value in endowing synthetic hexaploid wheat with good end-use qualities. In this paper, we isolated and sequenced genes Dx5
accession As63. Amino acid sequence comparison indicated that Dy12
is more similar to Dy10 rather than Dy12 of bread wheat. The sequence of Dx5
accession As63 showed higher similarity to that of Dx5 in bread wheat than others. However, it is notable that Dx5
lacked the additional cysteine residue in Dx5, which is responsible for good bread-making quality in common wheat. Moreover, compared to Dx5, Dx5
has an extra hexpeptide repetitive motif unit (SGQGQQ) as well as five amino acid substitutions.
Shewanella putrefaciens supernatant was found to increase the virulence factors of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by eﬃciently degrading its acylhomoserine lactone (AHL). To further reveal the regulation mechanism and its key degrading enzyme, a potential AHL-degrading enzyme acylase (Aac) from S. putrefaciens was cloned, and the inﬂuences of temperature, pH, protein modiﬁers, and metals on Aac were tested. Aac was signiﬁcantly inﬂuenced by temperature and pH, and exhibited the highest AHL-degrading activity at temperatures of 37 °C and pH of 8. Mg2+ and Fe2+ can further increase the AHL-degrading activity. 10 mM EDTA inhibited its activity possibly by chelating the co-factors (metals) required for Aac activity. Tryptophan and arginine were identiﬁed as key components for Aac activity that are critical to its AHL-degrading activity. This study provides useful information on Aac and for V. parahaemolyticus control.
In this work, 9 novel LMW-GS genes (6 LMW-m and 3 LMW-i type) from 4 diploid and 1 tetraploid Aegilops species were amplified and cloned by allelic-specific PCR. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that 7 and 2 LMW-GS had 9 and 7 cysteines, respectively. Four LMW-m type subunits genes had an extra cysteine at the C-terminal III, which could form intermolecular disulphide bonds to extend the chains, and therefore would facilitate to form larger gluten polymers. This suggested that these genes are expected to be used as candidate genes for wheat quality improvement. The correlation between specific N-terminal sequences and a decapeptide deletion in the C-terminal II in LMW-GS encoded by D genome was found. Particularly, if LMW-GS possessed a METRCIPG-N-terminal beginning sequences and a decapeptide (LGQCSFQQPQ) deletion in the C-terminal II, they could be encoded by D genome.
High-yield common buckwheat ‘cv. Fengtian 1’ (FT1) and tartary buckwheat ‘cv. Jingqiao 2’ (JQ2) were selected to investigate the characteristics of the grain-filling process and starch accumulation of high-yield buckwheat. FT1 had an average yield that was 43.0% higher than that of the control ‘cv. Tongliaobendixiaoli’ (TLBDXL) in two growing seasons, while JQ2 had an average yield that was 27.3% higher than that of the control ‘cv. Chuanqiao 2’ (CQ2). The Richards equation was utilized to evaluate the grain-filling process of buckwheat. Both FT1 and JQ2 showed higher values of initial growth power and final grain weight and longer linear increase phase, compared with respective control. These values suggest that the higher initial increasing rate and the longer active growth period during grain filling play important roles to increase buckwheat yield. Similar patterns of starch, amylose and amylopectin accumulation were detected in common buckwheat, leading to similar concentration of each constituent at maturity in FT1 and TLBDXL. Tartary buckwheat showed an increasing accumulation pattern of amylose in developing seeds, which differed from that of starch and amylopectin. This pattern led to a significant difference of the concentrations of amylose and amylopectin at maturity between JQ2 and CQ2, the mechanisms of which remained unclear. Nevertheless, both FT1 and JQ2 showed increased starch, amylose, and amylopectin accumulation during the physiological maturity of grains. The results suggest that prolonging the active grain-filling period to increase carbohydrate partitioning from source to seed sink can be an effective strategy to improve buckwheat yield.
Aegiolops kotschyi cytoplasmic male sterile system often results in part of haploid plants in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To elucidate the origin of haploid, 235 wheat microsatellite (SSR) primers were randomly selected and screened for polymorphism between haploid (2n = 3x = 21 ABD) and its parents, male-sterile line YM21 (2n = 6x = 42 AABBDD) and male fertile restorer YM2 (2n = 6x = 42 AABBDD). About 200 SSR markers yielded clear bands from denatured PAGE, of which 180 markers have identifiable amplification patterns, and 20 markers (around 8%) resulted in different amplification products between the haploid and the restorer, YM2. There were no SSR markers that were found to be distinguishable between the haploid and the male sterile line YM21. In addition, different distribution of HMW-GS between endosperm and seedlings from the same seeds further confirmed that the haploid genomes were inherited from the maternal parent. After haploidization, 1.7% and 0.91% of total sites were up- and down-regulated exceeding twofold in the shoot and the root of haploid, respectively, and most of the differentially expressed loci were up/down-regulated about twofold. Out of the sensitive loci in haploid, 94 loci in the shoot, 72 loci in the root can be classified into three functional subdivisions: biological process, cellular component and molecular function, respectively.