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Gluten proteins composed of gliadins and glutenins are important contributors to the wheat quality properties. Twenty-eight winter wheat cultivars differing in bread processing quality were collected at the experimental fields of the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, in growing season 2006/2007.The HMW-GS composition and gliadin contents were determined by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, respectively, with the aim to determine their relationship with wheat quality properties. Based on gliadins and HMW-GS data for 28 wheat cultivars PLS models were developed for the prediction of 15 baking quality parameters.NIPALS algorithm was applied for the evaluation of the latent variables and regression coefficient parameters. The obtained 4-th order models have average coefficients of determination R2=0.80.Determined variable importance in projections (VIP) coefficients revealed that HMW-GS data have the dominant influence on the baking quality parameters. For extensographic and farinographic properties the Glu-D1 locus has the main VIP coefficient while Glu-B1 locus is the most important for the indirect quality parameters. The derived PLS models and VIP coefficients could be used in molecular based wheat selection and breeding program.

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Ten winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were tested in randomized complete block design (RCBD) trials at one location (Osijek) for several agronomic and quality traits through six growing seasons (1996/97–2001/02). Data were employed to develop modeling strategy for exploring genotype by environment interaction (GEI) by using models based on information on genotypic and environmental variables. The relative size, hence importance of the GEI compared to main effects of genotypes and environments was estimated for all effects from simple additive model (genotypes, environments and residuals, last including both GEI and experimental error) while the AMMI2 model was used as a basis for comparison of the GEI patterns. The final step in modeling strategy was fitting factorial regression models to all analyzed traits using available genotypic and environmental covariates, until the best fit solution was found for each analyzed trait.Comparing the relative sizes of genotypic and GEI effects, the last one was sizeable smaller, for all traits except grain yield (GY), thousand-kernel weight (TKW), and Hagberg falling number (HFN). Fitting of genotypic and environmental covariates resulted in various solutions for different traits, most frequently employing single genotypic covariate — Glu-A1.Regardless of their relatively small size, the GEI effects in wheat quality traits can offer a better insight into fluctuations of varietal quality over a range of environmental conditions, as they can be successfully modeled using various genotypic and environmental covariates. The advantage of described approach is attainable in virtually any breeding program, because during the implementation of the program breeders routinely score for a number of genotypic and environmental variables.

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β-Glucan content and β-glucanase activity of winter and spring barley cultivars grown under different environments were evaluated. There were significant differences in both β-glucan content and β-glucanase activity between analysed barleys. The results showed that, for all cultivars and locations, approximately 75% of β-glucan present in grains was degraded after malting, and that marked differences existed among winter and spring type of cultivars in malt β-glucan content. The correlation analysis of β-glucan content and malt quality parameters showed that malt β-glucan content was significantly positively correlated with viscosity and extract difference, and negatively with malt β-glucanase activity and friability. Regarding malt β-glucanase activity, significantly higher activity was found in spring cultivars in contrast to winter cultivars.

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Authors: D. Horvat, N. Ðukić, D. Magdić, J. Mastilović, G. Šimić, A. Torbica and D. Živančev

Glutenin polymers composed of HMW and LMW subunits are important contributors to the wheat end-use properties. Twenty-six winter wheat cultivars differing in bread processing quality were collected at the experimental fields of the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia and Institute of the Field and Vegetable Crops Novi Sad, Serbia, in 2008/2009 season. The HMW glutenins composition and glutenin proteins content were determined by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, respectively, with aim to determine the relationship between glutenin protein fractions and wheat quality properties. Significant differences were found between Croatian and Serbian cultivars in several quality attributes (GI, WA, DDT, DS and R/EXT) as well as in the content of total glutenins and LMW glutenins and GLI/GLU ratio. The dominant HMW subunits in analyzed cultivars were 2*, 7 + 9/7 + 8 and 5 + 10. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the presence of association between HMW glutenins composition and GI, dough E, R and R/EXT, while the glutenins quantitative data showed pronounced relation with P, DDT, DS, E, R and R/EXT. GLI/GLU ratio had the opposite effect on these parameters.

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Authors: D. Horvat, N. Ðukić, D. Magdić, J. Mastilović, G. Šimić, A. Torbica and D. Živančev
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Authors: A. Torbica, D. Horvat, D. Živančev, M. Belović, G. Šimić, D. Magdić, N. Đukić and K. Dvojković

The aim of this study was to compare efficiency of RP-HPLC (Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) and LOC (Lab-on-Chip) methods for wheat gluten protein quantification regarding clustering of wheat cultivars according to the genetic similarity (HMW-GS combinations), as well as to explore relations of these two methods to wheat quality parameters. For that purpose, wheat quality parameters (protein content, falling number, wet gluten content, gluten index, Farinograph, Extensograph, and Amylograph), as well as amounts of gliadin and glutenin fractions by RP-HPLC and LOC methods were determined in two different sets of wheat cultivars (Croatian and Serbian). The percentages of gluten proteins and the values of quality parameters were used to characterize the samples by principal component analysis (PCA). Gluten protein quantification performed by method based on the protein fraction separation by molecular weights (LOC) was better for grouping of genetically similar wheat cultivars than quantification of proteins separated by their different solubility in specified solvent gradient (RP-HPLC). LOC method showed higher potential in wheat quality prediction.

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Under artificial Fusarium infection the total glutenin content determined by chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was significantly reduced in comparison to gliadins which were increased. Among protein types, α-GLI and HMW-GS were the highest affected. Artificial Fusarium infection significantly increased GLI/GLU ratio when compared with the natural infected samples. Artificial Fusarium infection dramatically decreased the dough mixing tolerance and had a considerable negative effect on dough energy, maximum resistance, and resistance/extensibility ratio. Disturbed GLI/GLU ratio and an increased amount of mycotoxin DON under artificial Fusarium infection showed a strong negative impact on affected functional properties of dough and bread. Total and γ-GLI as well as GLI/GLU ratio were significantly positively affected by mycotoxin DON in contrast to total GLU, HMW-GS and LMW-GS which were negatively affected. Results indicated that the stability of baking quality parameters of cultivars more tolerance to the Fusarium infection can be well define by lower accumulation of mycotoxin DON.

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Authors: G. Šimić, R. Sudar, A. Lalić, Z. Jurković, D. Horvat and D. Babić

The hordein proteins of ten barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars grown in region of eastern Croatia were studied for their contribution to the malting quality, particularly relating hordein influence on malt extract yield. The analysis of hordein proteins was carried out by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The micromalting of investigated barley cultivars and malt analyses were done according to the EBC official methods. The quantitative analysis of hordein proteins has showed that B-hordein was major component, followed by C- and D-hordeins. Among investigated cultivars the malt extract yield varied from 76.8% (cv. Angora) to 82.6% (cv. Scarlett). Spring barleys had on the average higher malt extract yield in contrast to winter barleys. The significant negative correlation between the total hordein content and malt extract yield was found. Among hordein fractions the B-hordein and D-hordein significantly contributed to lower malt extract yield. RP-HPLC analysis of malt hordeins revealed that the amount of hordein degraded during malting significantly correlated with Kolbach index.

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Authors: D. Horvat, Z. Jurković, G. Drezner, G. Šimić, D. Novoselović and K. Dvojković

The gluten proteins of 15 winter wheat cultivars grown in eastern Croatia were studied for their contribution to the bread-making quality. Composition of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, while the quantity of gluten proteins was determined by combined extraction/RP-HPLC procedure. The results of the linear correlation analysis carried out on the particular gluten proteins and technological properties showed that the amount of total gluten content highly correlates with protein content. Among gluten proteins, the glutenins showed higher correlation with protein content, with pronounced influence of HMW-GS, than gliadins. Wet gluten content was significantly correlated to total gliadin quantity. Gluten index as gluten quality parameter was positively influenced by total glutenins and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), and negatively, by the ratios of gliadin to glutenin (Gli/Glu), whereas the amount of gliadins was not important. Dough development time was strongly correlated with total gluten content, total glutenins and the Gli/Glu ratio. Dough mixing resistance was strongly affected by total glutenin content with pronounced influence of HMW-GS. Degree of dough softening is mainly negative influenced by total glutenins and ratio of Gli/Glu. Farinograph quality number as flour quality index was highly positively correlated with total glutenins, with emphasized influence of HMW-GS. The Gli/Glu ratio had the highest influence on dough maximum resistance. Dough extensibility showed moderate correlation with total gliadins. The results of the linear correlation indicated that loaves volumes were significantly influenced by total gluten proteins, HMW-GS and LMW-GS.

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Authors: D. Đikić, Snježana Židovec-Lepej, Anica Remenar, Anica Horvat-Knežević, Vesna Benković, D. Lisičić, Lana Sajli and O. Springer

Prometryne is a methylthio-s-triazine herbicide used to control annual broadleaf and grass weeds in many cultivated plants. Significant traces are documented in environment, mainly water, soil and plants used for human and domestic animal nutrition. Data on the toxic effects of prometryne and other methylthios-triazine have scorcely been published. The goal of this study was to investigate if prometryne, applied orally, could induce DNA damage in mouse leukocytes, in subchronical in vivo experimental design. Three different doses of prometryne were applied per os repeatedly every 48 hours. After the 7th dose (day 14) and the 14th dose (day 28) blood leucocytes were analyzed by alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The results of three different comet parameters showed general increase in Olive tail moment, tail length and tail intensity values in treated groups of animals. The increase in measured values was almost proportional to the dose received and the time of exposure. We conclude that prometryne or its metabolic residues have the potential to induce processes that cause genotoxic effects on leukocytes on mice in in vivo repeated exposure.

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