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Abstract  

Two complimentary spectroscopic techniques, X-ray absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy have been conducted at spatial scales of 1 to 25 μm on uranium contaminated soil sediments collected from two former nuclear materials processing facilities of the DOE: Fernald, OH and Savannah River Site, SC. A method of imbedding particles in a non-reactive Si polymer was developed such that individual particles could be examined before and after extraction with a wide range of chemicals typically used in sequential extraction techniques and others proposed forex situ chemical intervention technologies. Using both the micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) techniques, both elemental and oxidation state distribution maps were generated on individual particles before and following chemical extraction. XANES can determine the relative proportion of U(VI) and U(IV) in phases comprising individual particles before and after extraction and showed that greater than 85% of the uranium existed as hexavalent U(VI). Fluorescence spectra of contaminated particles containing mainly U(VI) revealed populations of uranyl hydroxide phases and demonstrated the relative efficacy and specificity of each extraction method. Correlation of XAS and fluorescence data at micron scales provides information of U oxidation state as well as chemical form in heterogeneous samples.

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Abstract  

A 30 Hz YAG laser pumped, narrow-line, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has been used to investigate the chemical states of selected compounds in aqueous solution. The OPO system has the advantage that it can scan wavelengths over large ranges without significant loss of output power. The visible spectra of rare earth complexes in dilute aqueous solutions (as chemical analogs for the actinides) have been studied and preliminary qualitative results for erbium acetate complexes at the 100 micromolar level are in good agreement with literature data. Quantitative measurements of the protonation constant for phenol red at the 100 nanomolar level were measured. The particular implementation of the OPO system used in this work introduced a number of spectral artifacts due to optical signal overlap with near-infrared water absorption bands. In addition, it was demonstrated that the concentration limiting factor for photoacoustic spectroscopy is the intrisic absorption of water in the visible region of the spectrum.

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Abstract  

The role of fluorine in human health has become somewhat controversial. It is widely accepted as protective against dental caries, may be protective against osteoporosis, and has been very conservatively implicated with osteosarcoma in male rats. In this study, we repot on the development of a neutron activation analysis method and its application to the analysis of human nails. We have found that toenails collected in population-based epidemiology studies apparently reflect fluoride intake.

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Physiology International
Authors:
Michael S. Brian
,
Ryanne D. Carmichael
,
Felicia R. Berube
,
Daniel T. Blake
,
Hunter R. Stuercke
, and
Evan L. Matthews

Abstract

No studies have directly measured ventilatory and metabolic responses while wearing a respiratory training mask (RTM) at rest and during exercise. Eleven aerobically fit adults (age: 21 ± 1 years) completed a randomized cross-over study while wearing an RTM or control mask during cycling at 50% Wmax. An RTM was retrofitted with a gas collection tube and set to the manufacturer's “altitude resistance” setting of 6,000 ft (1,800 m). Metabolic gas analysis, ratings of perceived exertion, and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured during rest and cycling exercise. The RTM did not affect metabolic, ventilation, and SpO2 at rest compared to the control mask (all, effect of condition: P > 0.05). During exercise, the RTM blunted respiratory rate and minute ventilation (effect of condition: P < 0.05) compared to control. Similar increases in VO2 and VCO2 were observed in both conditions (both, effect of condition: P > 0.05). However, the RTM led to decreased fractional expired O2 and increased fractional expired CO2 (effect of condition: P < 0.05) compared to the control mask. In addition, the RTM decreased SpO2 and increased RPE (both, effect of condition: P < 0.05) during exercise. Despite limited influence on ventilation and metabolism at rest, the RTM reduces ventilation and disrupts gas concentrations during exercise leading to modest hypoxemia.

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