Experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99Tc as spike tracer and 3H as invariant tracer, were analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and the retardation factor of 99TcO4- on the crushed granite were determined simultaneously by one linear regression. Dispersity of crushed granite was also obtained with 3H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. Experimental results show that the dispersity found by the spike source method is close to that found by the invariant source method. This indicates that dispersity is only a characteristic of the dispersion medium.
The adsorption of 99Tc on the adsorbers Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 was studied by batch experiments under aerobic and anoxic conditions. The effects of pH and CO32- concentration of the simulated ground water on the adsorption ratios were also investigated, and the valences of Tc in solution after the adsorption equilibrium were studied by solvent extraction. The adsorption isotherms of TcO4- on the adsorbers Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 were determined. Experimental results have shown that the adsorption ratio of Tc on Fe decreases with the increase of pH in the range of 5-12 and increases with the decrease of the CO32- concentration in the range of 10-8M-10-2M. Under aerobic conditions, the adsorption ratios of 99Tc on Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 were not influenced by pH and CO32-concentration. When Fe was used as adsorbent, Tc existed mainly in the form of Tc(IV) after equilibrium and in the form of Tc(VII) when the adsorbent was Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 under aerobic conditions. The adsorption ratios of Tc on Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 decreased with the increase of pH in the range of 5-12 and increased with the decrease of the CO32- concentration in the range of 10-8M-10-2M under anoxic conditions. Tc existed mainly in the form of Tc(IV) after equilibrium when Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 was the adsorbent under anoxic conditions. The adsorption isotherms of TcO4- on the adsorbers Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 are fairly in agreement with the Freundlich’s equation under both aerobic and anoxic conditions.
Authors:J. Liu, D. He, L. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. Wang
The combustion behavior of Shuangya Mountain (SYM) coal dust has been investigated by means of TG in this paper. The reaction fraction can be obtained from isothermal TG data. The regressions of g(), an integral function of
vs. t for different reaction mechanisms were performed. The mechanism of nucleation and nuclei growth is determined as the controlling step of the coal dust combustion reaction by the correlation coefficient of the regression, and the kinetic equation of the SYM coal dust combustion reaction has been established.
Authors:J. Carpenter, D. Katayama, L. Liu, W. Chonkaew, and K. Menard
The glass transition of lyophilized materials is normally measured by conventional or temperature modulated differential scanning
calorimetry (TMDSC). However, because of the weakness of these transitions when protein concentrations are high, these techniques
are often unable to detect the glass transition (Tg). High ramp rate DSC, where heating rates of 100 K per min and higher are used, has been shown to be able to detect weak
transitions in a wide range of materials and has been applied to these materials in previous work. Dynamic mechanical analysis
(DMA) is also known to be much more sensitive to the presence of relaxations in materials than other commonly used thermal
techniques. The development of a method to handle powders in the DMA makes it now possible to apply this technique to protein
and protein-excipient mixtures. HRR DSC, TMA and DMA were used to characterize the glass transition of lyophilized materials
and the results correlated. DMA is shown to be a viable alternative to HRR DSC and TMA for lyophilized materials.
Poly(AN—co—St) (PAS) and poly(AN—St—MMA)(PASM) were synthetized by emulsion polymerisation. The glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the copolymers and the relationship between Tg and the components of the copolymers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The results show that Tg for the AN—St bipolymers has apeak value in the range 115–118°C at a content of 50 mass% St. When methyl methacrylate was added, the Tg of the terpolymer was decreased by about 2–6°C.The thermostability and the activation energy E of degradation were determined by thermogravimetric analysis.
Authors:H.-L. Liu, S.-J. Liu, Z.-L. Xiao, Q.-Y. Chen, and D.-W. Yang
Excess molar enthalpies of binary mixtures for tributyl
phosphate (TBP)+methanol/ethanol were measured with a TAM air Isothermal calorimeter
at 298.15 K and ambient. The results for xTBP+(1–x)CH3OH
are negative in the whole range of composition, while the values for xTBP+(1–x)C2H5OH
change from positive values at low x to
small negative values at high x. The experimental
results have been correlated with the Redlich–Kister polynomial. IR
spectra of the mixtures were measured to investigate the effect of hydrogen
bonding in the mixture.
Authors:X.G. Hu, J. Liu, L. Zhang, B.H. Wu, J.L. Hu, D.C. Liu, and Y.L. Zheng
Grains of 12 accessions of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. ssp. timopheevii (AAGG, 2n = 4x = 28) and one bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS) and one durum wheat cultivar Langdon (LDN) grown across two years were analyzed for grain iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. All the 12 tested T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii genotypes showed significantly higher concentration of grain Fe and Zn than CS and LDN. Aboundant genetic variability of both the Fe and Zn concentrations was observed among the T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii accessions, averagely varied from 47.06 to 90.26 mg kg−1 and from 30.05 to 65.91 mg kg−1, respectively. Their grain Fe and Zn concentrations between years exhibited a significantly positive correlation with the correlation coefficients r = 0.895 and r = 0.891, respectively, indicating the highly genetic stability. Flag leaf possessed twice or three times higher concentrations for both Fe and Zn than grain, and a significantly high positive correlation appeared between the two organs with r = 0.648 for Fe and r = 0.957 for Zn concentrations, respectively, suggesting flag leaves might be indirectly used for evaluating grain Zn and Fe contents. Significant correlations occurred between grain Fe and Zn concentrations, and between grain Zn concentration and the two agronomic traits of plant height and number of spikelets per spike. Both the concentrations were not related to seed size or weight as well as NAM-G1 gene, implying the higher grain Fe and Zn concentrations of T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii species are not ascribed to concentration effects of seed and the genetic control of NAM-G1 gene. There might be some other biological factors impacting the grain’s Zn and Fe concentrations. These results indicated T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii species might be a promising genetic resource with high Fe and Zn concentrations for the biofortification of current wheat cultivars.
Authors:B. Zhou, S. Jiang, L. Zou, X. Wang, D. Wang, J. Liu, S. Shang, and D. Zhou
A new compound cyclohexyl-t-butyldimethylammonium tetraphenylborate, [C6H11N(CH3)2(C(CH3)3)]BPh4 has been prepared, and its decomposition mechanism was studied by TG. The IR spectra of the products of thermal decomposition were examined at every stage. Kinetic analysis for the first stage of thermal decomposition process was obtained by TG and DTG curves, and kinetic parameters were obtained from the analysis of the TG-DTG curves with integral and differential equations. The most probable kinetic function was suggested by comparison of kinetic parameters.
Authors:L.J. Wu, Y. Shang, T. Liu, W.J. Chen, B.L. Liu, L.Q. Zhang, D.C. Liu, B. Zhang, and H.G. Zhang
In this study, the cDNA of homocysteine S-methyltransferase was isolated from Aegilops tauschii Coss., with the gene accordingly designated as AetHMT1. Similar to other methyltransferases, AetHMT1 contains a GGCCR consensus sequence for a possible zinc-binding motif near the C-terminal and a conserved cysteine residue upstream of the zinc-binding motif. Analysis of AetHMT1 uncovered no obvious chloroplast or mitochondrial targeting sequences. We functionally expressed AetHMT1 in Escherichia coli and confirmed its biological activity, as evidenced by a positive HMT enzyme activity of 164.516 ± 17.378 nmol min−1 mg−1 protein when catalyzing the transformation of L-homocysteine. Compared with the bacterium containing the empty vector, E. coli harboring the recombinant AetHMT1 plasmid showed much higher tolerance to selenate and selenite. AetHMT1 transcript amounts in different organs were increased by Na2SeO4 treatment, with roots accumulating higher amounts than stems, old leaves and new leaves. We have therefore successfully isolated HMT1 from Ae. tauschii and characterized the biochemical and physiological functions of the corresponding protein.