This paper was inspired by a monograph by Bratteli and Jorgensen, and the work of Kawamura. We introduce two new semigroups:
a wide inverse submonoid of the polycyclic inverse monoid, called the gauge inverse monoid, and a Zappa-Szép product of an
arbitrary free monoid with the free monoid on one generator. Both these monoids play an important role in studying arbitrary,
not necessarily transitive, strong actions of polycyclic inverse monoids. As a special case of such actions, we obtain some
new results concerning the strong actions of P2 on ℤ determined by the choice of one positive odd number. We explain the role played by Lyndon words in characterising these
repesentations and show that the structure of the representation can be explained by studying the binary representations of
High-resolution thermogravimetry was used to study the thermodesorption of octane from ammonium nitrate (AN) prills with different
porosities. The samples were wetted by immersion in octane. Multiple steps were obtained from the measured mass-loss curves,
which reflect the evaporation of the excess liquid, as well as the thermodesorption of octane from the pores and the surface
of the AN prills. The quantity of octane desorbed in these steps was correlated with the volume in the pores and the amount
adsorbed on the surface, and used to estimate the adsorption capacity, porosity and surface area of AN prills. The results
were also compared to observations from scanning electron microscopy.
In this study gasification in air of activated carbons and carbon blacks is investigated using a simultaneous TG-DTA unit. It is found that a final acid or alkaline treatment can substantially alter their reactivity in the gasification reaction in air. To make a proper assessment of their solid state reactivity with respect to their gasification in air a simple method is advanced which has been used recently in assessing solid state reactivity of other materials. In this method a thermogravimetric (TG) plot is obtained on a reference carbon and then similar TG plots are obtained on the other samples of carbon using identical experimental conditions and the same TG unit. The solid state reactivity is assessed from plots of the αR (the value of αR, the extent of the gasification of the reference carbon) against the sample carbons values of the αS (labeled αS to denote the value of the various carbon samples). The values of appropriate couples of αR and αS at temperaturesT1,T2,T3,...Tn allow an αR-αS plot to be constructed. If the solid state reactivity of the carbon samples matches exactly that of the reference carbon the result will be a linear plot, showing coincidence of αS and αR at all values of αR. If the solid state reactivity of a carbon sample exceeds that of the reference carbon then the lines plotted will be on one side of the coincidence plot, while if they are less than the carbon reference they will lie on the other side. The results show that treatment of a carbon with alkaline or acid may have a significant effect on the reactivity of the carbon sample which is only partly explained by observable differences in surface area.
KDNBF (potassium 4,6-dinitrobenzofuroxan) has been used as a primer explosive in igniters and detonators for many years. Considerable
information about the sensitivity of KDNBF to various stimuli, such as impact, friction, shock and electrostatic charge, is
known. However, the thermal sensitivity of KDNBF has been relatively unexplored. Hence, there is very little information available
concerning the fundamental thermal properties of KDNBF. Therefore, as part of an extensive thermal hazard assessment, DSC,
TG, accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and heat flux calorimetry (HFC) measurements have been undertaken on KDNBF. The results
demonstrate that KDNBF decomposes via a multi-step exothermic process directly from the solid state. The decomposition process
does not appear to depend on the nature of the atmosphere, except in the final stage of the TG decomposition in air, where
remaining carbonaceous material is converted to CO2. The first stage of the decomposition is sufficiently rapid that ignition occurs if too large a sample is used. Dynamic and
isothermal methods were used to obtain the kinetic parameters and a range of activation energies were obtained, depending
on the experimental conditions. The kinetic results have been analyzed in terms of various solid state decomposition models.
DSC measurements have been used to investigate the thermal stability of each of four specific detection agents, prescribed
by the International Civil Aviation Organization for incorporation into explosives at the point of manufacture. Additionally,
the compatibility of these agents with a number of commercial explosives has been assessed. DSC results for a complete study
of mixtures of the agents with the explosive, tetryl are specifically described. The thermograms are compared with those of
the pure agents and tetryl, the thermal decomposition of which has been previously characterized.
Authors:W. Ehmann, R. Young, D. Koppenaal, W. Jones and M. Prasad
Derivative activation analysis is a technique in which the element or chemical entity to be determined is either replaced or complexed in a preirradiation chemical procedure with another element for which neutron activation analysis has an intrinsically higher sensitivity. Although the technique has many potential applications, the literature of the field is very limited. Examples of recent applications in our laboratory include: determination of P in natural waters, biological reference standards, brain tissue, rocks and coal; determination of Ni in a stony meteorite; determination of T1 in solutions; and speciation of oxygen (e.g., hydroxyl and carbonyl moieties) in coal via 14 MeV neutron activation.
Authors:D. Jones, P. Brousseau, R. Fouchard, A. Turcotte and Q. Kwok
The thermal properties of Alex, a nanosized Al powder, were determined using various techniques, including DSC, TG, simultaneous
TG-DTA (SDT) and accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). The results demonstrate that the specific heat capacities of nano and
micron size Al powders are similar between 30 and 400C. Dynamic and isothermal methods were used to determine the kinetic
parameters for the oxidation reaction of Alex, which was detected at an onset temperature of 481C. The results obtained were
in good agreement with each other. From the ARC experiments, exotherms were detected near 340 and 260C for experiments started
at ambient pressure and at 0.72 MPa, respectively.
Authors:E. Evans, D. Warrell, J. Elvidge and J. Jones
The development of tritium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy now makes it possible to determine the tritium distribution
in virtually any organic compound at the millicurie level of radioactivity. Results of catalytic experiments show that in
some cases a remarkable degree of specificity can be achieved when using procedures that are expected to produce generally
labelled compounds. Conversely there are instances where specific labelling procedures are less than 100% successful.
A Tian-Calvet heat flux calorimeter has been modified for use with high pressures in measurements of thermal hazards of materials.
The system comprising a specially designed high pressure vessel and an associated manifold is described. With this system,
comparative measurements using both standard and high pressure vessels can be made, different materials and/or liners can
be used for the high pressure vessel and an assessment of the influence of the gaseous environment on thermal behaviour can
be made. Calibration was carried out in the range 25 to 300C at different pressures and heating rates, using sapphire and
the calibration results were verified with benzoic acid, both reference grade materials. With the new vessel, pressures up
to about 70 MPa can be used or recorded during the thermal decomposition of energetic materials.
The reproducibility of the baseline, as illustrated by standard error results, was about 0.02% compared with 0.13% for the
standard vessel, over the entire temperature range. The corresponding results for the baseline of the pressure vessel at 5.5
MPa (in air and Ar) and in a calibration experiment with sapphire were 0.08%.
Experimental data obtained for ammonium nitrate and 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane in the standard and pressure vessels are
compared and discussed. The effect of pressure and the nature of the gaseous environment (inert or oxidizing) on the results
for these two materials will be described.
Authors:D. Jones, H. Feng, R. Augsten and R. Fouchard
Isopropylnitrate (IPN) is described as a detonable material used in propellants and explosives. While there is considerable
information available on its sensitivity and compatibility with other materials, very little is known about its thermochemical
properties. This paper will describe the results obtained from some DSC, heat flux calorimetry (HFC) and accelerating rate
calorimetry (ARC) measurements.
The ASTM DSC method using a hermetic aluminum pan having a lid with a laser-produced pin hole was used to determine the vapour
pressure of IPN1. Results calculated from an Antoine equation are in substantial agreement with those determined from DSC measurements. From
the latter measurements, the enthalpy of vaporization was determined to be 35.320.62 kJ mol−1. Attempts to determine vapour pressures above about 0.8 MPa resulted in significant decomposition of IPNg.
The enthalpy change for decomposition in sealed glass systems was found to be -3.430.09 kJ g−1 and -3.850.03 kJ g−1, respectively from DSC and HFC measurements on IPN1 samples loaded in air. Slightly larger exotherms were observed for the HFC results in air than those in inert gas, suggesting
some oxidation occurs. In contrast, no significant difference in the observed onset temperature of about 150C was observed
for both the HFC and ARC results.
From DSC measurements, an Arrhenius activation energy for decomposition of 1264 kJ mol−1 was found. These measurements were also conducted in sealed glass systems and decomposition appeared to proceed primarily
from the liquid phase.