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Four different tillage systems were compared in soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production on one experimental field (chernozem) located in the Baranya region of northeastern Croatia in 2002 and 2003. The dry conditions experienced in 2003 exacerbated the negative effects of no-tillage on soybean yield. The 2-year average yield of soybean was significantly lower under no-tillage (NT) than in the conventional tillage (CT), soil loosening (SL) and disc harrowing (DH) treatments. The soybean oil and protein contents were very similar in all the tillage systems over the 2-year average. Soybean crude fibre (%) was affected by the main effect of tillage. Averaged over 2 years the crude fibre (%) of soybean grain was greater under NT than in the CT, DH and SL treatments. The ash (%) generally increased as tillage declined.

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Eight different tillage systems were compared in soybean production on one experimental field (chernozem) located in the Baranya region of Croatia over a 4-year period (2001/2002, 2002/2003, 2003/2004, 2004/2005). The dry conditions experienced in 2003 exacerbated the effects of NT and CWNS on the soybean yield. The most stable grain yield was obtained using CSNW and CSDW in all four experimental years. DH, CH and CWDS did not result in any significant reduction in crop yield compared to CT. There was no clear trend regarding the applied tillage systems and grain yield components. The greatest effects on soybean yield and yield components were due to climatic conditions. Different tillage systems had a significant effect on the soybean grain yield and yield components in the four experimental years. The largest differences in stem height were determined between CSNW and NT. The number of pods per plant, the hectolitre mass and the grain yield were significantly lower under NT than under the other tillage systems. The number of fertile nodes of soybean and the number of branches per plant in the experimental years had approximately the same values for all the tillage systems. To sum up, the results achieved with DH, CH, CSDW, CWDS and CSNW were on par with each other and slightly better than CT, and these systems could represent adequate replacements for conventional tillage. No tillage could not be considered as the most favourable for soybean growing.

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Winter wheat and soybean were grown under field conditions on chernozem soil of Knezevo, Croatia, for four years (from 2002 to 2005) in three applied soil tillage treatments: a) CT — conventional soil tillage, based on mouldboard ploughing, b) DH — soil tillage based on diskharrowing instead of ploughing; and c) NT — no-tillage. Both crops showed decreasing concentration of Zn within the plant tissue as a result of the soil tillage reduction in the order CT>DH>NT, presumably due to the limited roots growth in lesser disturbed soil at DHand NT treatments. Winter wheat recorded generally lower than optimal Zn concentrations and higher P:Zn ratios at reduced soil tillage treatments, as a result of lower Zn uptake. The recommendation for the winter wheat production by reduced soil tillage is additional Zn fertilization, whose exact amounts and way of application shall follow further research.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Sabo
,
M. Sabo
,
D. Jug
,
D. Jug
,
Ž. Ugarčić-Hardi
, and
Ž. Ugarčić-Hardi

The effect of tillage systems (TS) on wheat quality traits including grain yield, thousand-kernels weight, hectoliter mass, flour extraction rate and flour rheological properties were evaluated. Five different TS were compared in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production on one experimental field (chernosem) located in the Baranya region, north-eastern Croatia from 1998 to 2001. Tillage systems included conventional tillage (CT), disc harrowing, fine till (DHF), soil loosening (SL) + disc harrowing (DH), disc harrowing, coarse till (DHC) and no-tillage (NT). The most stable grain yield was obtained by DHF and CT in all three experimental years. There was no striking regularity with regard to applied TS and hectoliter mass and thousand-kernels weight. The biggest difference of hectoliter mass was determined between CT and NT. TS had significant influence on the flour extraction rate in all three experimental years. The influence of TS on farinographic parameters was significant for all three experimental years for the quality number. Quality number was greater under CT than under other TS. Tillage effect on extensographic and amylographic parameters in the 3-year average did not show statistically significant differences. To sum up, since disc harrowing (DHF) and (DHC) followed by soil loosening with chisel produced equal grain yield and wheat quality parameters were slightly better than conventional tillage, these systems could be presented as an even handed replacement for ploughing.

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