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Thermal analysis on influence of compatibilizing agents

Effect of vulcanization of incompatible elastomer blend

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: K. Pandey, K. Debnath, P. Rajagopalan, D. Setua, and G. Mathur

Abstract  

Studies have been made on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of binary blends of isobutylene-isoprene (IIR) copolymer and polychloroprene (CR) elastomers. Blends of IIR and CR are incompatible and showed separateT g peaks in DSC curves similar to Tanδ peaks. However, addition of chlorinated polyethylene (CM) elastomer, as compatibilizer, imparts miscibility between IIR and CR which could be judged both through DSC as well as by dynamic loss measurements (Loss modulusE″ and Tanδ). The storage modulus (E′) showed variation of stiffness due to structural changes associated with the addition of compatibilizer. TG plots for these blends showed improvement of thermal stability both by addition of a suitable compatibilizer as well as due to formation of crosslinked structures associated with the vulcanization of the blends by standard curative package.

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Abstract

Thermal degradation kinetics of MWNT-reinforced EMA-based nanocomposites having different methyl acrylate (MA) contents (by % mass) ranging from 9 to 30% have been monitored. Kissinger and Flynn–Wall–Ozawa methods for evaluating non-isothermal degradation of polymers have been examined. Overall, the thermal stabilities of the nanocomposites are the function of amount of MWNTs loading and their state of dispersion that depends on the MA content of respective EMAs. Composite samples exhibit higher activation energy (E a) than the neat EMAs but the E as of the composites diminish with increased MA contents of the matrices. TG-Mass spectrometry has been used to identify the volatile products resulting from thermal degradation of composites, and a promising mechanism has been proposed over different range of temperatures of degradation. It is proposed that the side-group scission of methoxycarbonyl group initiates thermal decomposition following combination of chain end and random chain scission reactions, ensuing pseudo second-order kinetics.

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Abstract

The study deals with the morphological and thermal analysis of binary rubber blends of acrylonitrile-co-butadiene rubber (NBR) with another polymer. Either ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM), or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has been selected for the second phase. Depending on the relative polarity and interaction parameter of the components, the binary blends showed development of a bi-phasic morphology through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Use of different types of thermal analysis techniques revealed that these blends are generally incompatible excepting one of NBR and PVC. Derivative differential scanning calorimetry (DDSC), in place of conventional DSC, has been used to characterize the compatibility behavior of the blends. NBR–PVC shows appearance of only one glass transition temperature (T g) averaging the individual T g’s of the blend components. The partially missible blend of NBR and CSM shows a broadening of T g interval between the phase components, while the immiscible blends of either NBR–EPDM or NBR–EVA do not show any change in T g values corresponding to the individual rubbers of their blend. The experimental T g values were also compared with those calculated theoretically by Fox equation and observed to match closely with each other. Studies have also been made to evaluate the thermal stability of these blends by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and evaluation of activation energy of respective decomposition processes by Flynn and Wall method. Thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) was found to be effective for comparison of creep recovery and dimensional stability of the blends both at sub-ambient as well as at elevated temperatures.

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