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  • Author or Editor: D. K. Sharma x
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The present study reports the effects of pre-treatment with ferulic acid (FA) on antioxidant response of wheat seedlings. In comparison to hydropriming, 100 and 150 ppm of FA significantly enhanced seedling growth of wheat at 6th day after germination (DAG). However, 1000 ppm of FA led to reduction in seedling growth. Roots and shoots of wheat seedlings pre-treated with 100 ppm of FA showed significant upregulation of peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities. Although catalase (CAT) remained unaffected in the roots, but showed about 2-fold increase in the shoots. Despite of low glutathione reductase (GR) and high polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities in the shoots and roots, respectively, ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents also increased at 6th DAG which may be due to the activation of their biosynthetic pathways in seedlings pre-treated with 100 ppm of FA. Proline content of wheat seedlings pre-treated with 100 ppm of FA remained unaffected. Results signify the role of FA pre-treatment in augmenting the antioxidant response of wheat and thereby suggest that at lower concentrations, it can be used for improving performance of wheat under various environmental constraints.

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Abstract

A number of silicon-based inorganic ion exchangers were synthesized under different conditions of preparation. The original and regenerated ion exchange capacities (IECs) were determined. Thermal stability of these materials was investigated in the temperature range of 40–800 °C. The gain/loss of IEC was studied as a function of temperature. These exchangers show a higher IEC and its retention to a considerable extent at elevated temperatures when compared to that of corresponding ion exchangers which do not contain silica. The thermogravimetric curve shows greater percent mass loss in H+ form of the exchanger than in K+ form. Dehydration studies seem to throw some light on the state of water molecules present in various samples. The empirical formula and the tentative structure for stannic arseno silicate have also been proposed.

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Extraction behavior of U(VI) and Th(IV) from nitric acid medium is investigated using organo-phosphorous extractant, tri(butoxyethyl) phosphate in n-paraffin at room temperature (27 ± 1 °C). The effect of diluents, nitric acid concentration as well as extractant concentration on extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV) are evaluated. Extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV) from nitric acid medium proceeds via solvation mechanism. Slope analysis technique showed the formation of neutral complexes of the type of UO2(NO3)2·2TBEP and Th(NO3)4·3TBEP with U(VI) and Th(IV) respectively in the organic phase. The FTIR data showed shifting of P=O stretching frequency from 1,282 to 1,217 cm−1 indicating the strong complexation of P=O group with UO2 2+ ions in the organic phase. Effect of stripping agents, other metal ions and their separation with respect to U(VI) extraction has also been investigated.

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Solvent extraction of U(VI) with di-isodecyl phosphoric acid (DIDPA)/dodecane from nitric acid medium has been investigated for a wide range of experimental conditions. Effect of various parameters including nitric acid concentration, DIDPA concentration, temperature, stripping agents, and other impurities like rear earths, transition metal ion, boron, aluminum ion on U(VI) extraction has been studied. The species extracted in the organic phase is found to be UO2(NO3)(HA2)·H2A2 at lower acidity (<3.0 M HNO3). Increase in temperature lead to the decrease in extraction with the enthalpy change by ∆H = −16.27 kJ/mol. Enhancement in extraction of U(VI) from nitric acid medium was observed with the mixture of DIDPA and tri butyl phosphate (TBP). The stripping of U(VI) from organic phase (DIDPA–U(VI)/dodecane) with various reagents followed the order: 4 M H2SO4 > 5% (NH4)2CO3 > 8 M HCl > 8 M HNO3 > Water. High separation factors between U(VI) and impurities suggested that the use of DIDPA for purification of uranium from multi elements bearing solution.

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In this paper we describe a sensitive and reproducible reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with photodiode-array detection for isolation and quantification of the bioactive hydrophilic constituent 7-(1-O-β-d-galacturonide-4′-(1-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-3′,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone, 1, from the seeds of Cuminum cyminum. Compound 1 was separated isocratically on a C18 preparative column, in high purity, after removal of solvents. The purity and identity of the compound were established by use of LC-mass spectrometry and by spectroscopic techniques (1H and 13C NMR). The purity of 1 was also confirmed by HPTLC.

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Simultaneous measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activities by liquid scintillation counting technique using LKB Wallac Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter (LSC) equipped with Pulse Shape Analyzer (PSA) is described. Three sets of pure alpha and pure beta standards simulating the activity concentration values of real samples in terms of α/β activity ratios were used to calibrate the LSC. Calibration methodology for the Quantulus 1220 with respect to the above measurements using 241Am and 90Sr/90Y standards of respective activity concentrations of ~25 dpm and ~104 dpm is described in detail. Also highlighted the need to calibrate the LSC using another set of 241Am and 90Sr/90Y standards of low and high activity concentrations respectively. The practicability and working performance of these calibration plots was checked by the validation trials with test samples spiked with 241Am and 90Sr/90Y covering range of α/β activity ratios from 1:1 to 1:50.

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A new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to confirm chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in foods of animal origin and in urine samples, which were earlier found positive under the screening analysis, performed by competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) technique. The developed LC-MS/MS method was applied to four non-compliant samples from 2008 to 2012; giving concentrations of CAP residues from 1.18 to 3.68 μg kg−1. All samples, qualified positive by ELISA, were confirmed with the LC-MS/MS technique and found to be non-compliant. The effectiveness of the confirmatory method was proven by participating in a successful proficiency test in year 2010. Both LC-MS/MS and ELISA methods were validated according to the European Union 2002/657/EC decision. The decision limit of the confirmatory method was determined as 0.02 μg kg−1 for CAP in each validated matrix, while the detection capability of the screening test was 0.15 μg kg−1.

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The study deals with the morphological and thermal analysis of binary rubber blends of acrylonitrile-co-butadiene rubber (NBR) with another polymer. Either ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM), or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has been selected for the second phase. Depending on the relative polarity and interaction parameter of the components, the binary blends showed development of a bi-phasic morphology through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Use of different types of thermal analysis techniques revealed that these blends are generally incompatible excepting one of NBR and PVC. Derivative differential scanning calorimetry (DDSC), in place of conventional DSC, has been used to characterize the compatibility behavior of the blends. NBR–PVC shows appearance of only one glass transition temperature (T g) averaging the individual T g’s of the blend components. The partially missible blend of NBR and CSM shows a broadening of T g interval between the phase components, while the immiscible blends of either NBR–EPDM or NBR–EVA do not show any change in T g values corresponding to the individual rubbers of their blend. The experimental T g values were also compared with those calculated theoretically by Fox equation and observed to match closely with each other. Studies have also been made to evaluate the thermal stability of these blends by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and evaluation of activation energy of respective decomposition processes by Flynn and Wall method. Thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) was found to be effective for comparison of creep recovery and dimensional stability of the blends both at sub-ambient as well as at elevated temperatures.

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Deltamethrin, a well-known type 2 synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, is a widespread environmental toxicant. It has potential to accumulate in body fluids and tissues due to its lipophilic characteristics. The immune system is among the most sensitive targets regarding toxicity of environmental pollutants. Various methods are available in the literature to analyze deltamethrin (DLM) concentration in plasma and tissues, but regarding the immune organs, only one gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) method (on spleen tissues) has been reported. In the present investigation, a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed and validated to determine DLM concentration in plasma, thymus, and spleen using zaleplone as an internal standard. Liquid chromatography (LC) separation is performed on an Agilent Zorbax® C8 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 μm) with isocratic elution using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile–5 mM KH2PO4 (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min−1. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for DLM is 10 ng mL−1 (plasma, thymus, and spleen). The method has been validated in terms of establishing linearity, specificity, sensitivity, recovery, accuracy, and precision (intra- and inter-day) and stabilities study. This validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study of DLM in mice.

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Combining ability analysis in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) involving 10 diverse parents and their 45 F1 and F2 progenies indicated significant differences between the parents for GCA and between the crosses for SCA for all the characters studied. The GCA and SCA components of variance were significant for all the traits. However, the GCA component of variance was predominant, indicating the predominance of additive gene effects for the traits studied. Among the parents HD 2329, Raj 1972, HD 2285 and HD 2428 were the best general combiners for grain yield and average to high combiners for other important traits. The best specific crosses for grain yield were CPAN 3004 × Durgapura 65, Sonalika × HD 2329, Raj 3077 × CPAN 3004, Raj 3077 × HD 2428 and HD 2428 × WH 157.The parent Raj 1972 was the best general combiner for grain yield and protein content, while Raj 3077 and Lok-1 were the best general combiners for protein content. The most suitable specific crosses for protein content were HD 2329 x HD 2285, HD 2428 × Raj 1972 and CPAN 3004 × WH 157. Most of the specific crosses for grain yield and protein content involved high × average, average × average or average × poor general combiners. To ensure a further increase in grain yield along with high protein, combinations of desirable yield components are advocated. The exploitation of additive and non-additive gene actions through bi-parental mating and/or diallel selective mating systems are suggested for a tangible advance in grain yield coupled with high protein in spring wheat.

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