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Twenty five trace and minor elements (aluminium, arsenic, barium, bromine, cerium, chlorine, cobalt, chromium, cesium, europium, iron, hafnium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, rubidium, antimony, scandium, selenium, strontium, thorium, titanium, vanadium and zinc) in five different Egyptian aspirin brands (Aspo, Askin, Aspocid, Aspeol and Rivo) have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. It has been concluded that the concentration of arsenic, barium, bromine, cobalt, chromium, iron (except in Aspocid), magnesium, manganese, rubidium, selenium, strontium and zinc in the Egyptian brands is below or within the concentration range reported for these elements in 16 American aspirin and aspirin-like brands.

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Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and related diseases. These autoimmune diseases are caused by antibodies cross-reacting with the peripheral (GBS) and central neural tissue (Miller Fisher syndrome — MFS, Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis — BBE), leading to acute polyneuropathy. Recently, specific gene loci in C. jejuni have been distinguished which are associated with the onset of GBS, despite a molecular or phenotypic clustering. In this study, we used PCR to analyse C. jejuni isolates of different origin (i.e. bovine, poultry, human) for these genes. A total of 196 isolates were tested for cst-II and neuA. Of these, 101 isolates harboured the cst-II locus and 102 the neuA locus. Eighty-six isolates (44%) hold both genes. The frequency of cst-II in different sources of isolates of bovine, poultry and human isolates did not vary significantly (52, 50 and 52%, respectively). In contrast, the neuA locus was less often found in poultry isolates. Two human strains — from a family outbreak of campylobacteriosis (in 1989 in Austria) in which one person developed MFS — harboured both genes. Thus, although only one in more than 3000 patients with Campylobacter-associated enteritis develop GBS, about half of Campylobacter jejuni strains found in different environments are possibly able to cause GBS. These strains almost equally distributed in bovine, poultry and human isolates. Our results suggest that isolates associated with GBS are not selected by environmental or host-specific factors. Accordingly, this study indicates that host factors such as humoral and cellular immunity are possibly responsible for the development of these autoimmune diseases.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Beáta Bőthe, Marc N. Potenza, Mark D. Griffiths, Shane W. Kraus, Verena Klein, Johannes Fuss and Zsolt Demetrovics



Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is included in the eleventh edition of The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) as an impulse-control disorder.


The aim of the present work was to develop a scale (Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder Scale–CSBD-19) that can reliably and validly assess CSBD based on ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines.


Four independent samples of 9,325 individuals completed self-reported measures from three countries (the United States, Hungary, and Germany). The psychometric properties of the CSBD-19 were examined in terms of factor structure, reliability, measurement invariance, and theoretically relevant correlates. A potential threshold was determined to identify individuals with an elevated risk of CSBD.


The five-factor model of the CSBD-19 (i.e., control, salience, relapse, dissatisfaction, and negative consequences) had an excellent fit to the data and demonstrated appropriate associations with the correlates. Measurement invariance suggested that the CSBD-19 functions similarly across languages. Men had higher means than women. A score of 50 points was found as an optimal threshold to identify individuals at high-risk of CSBD.


The CSBD-19 is a short, valid, and reliable measure of potential CSBD based on ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines. Its use in large-scale, cross-cultural studies may promote the identification and understanding of individuals with a high risk of CSBD.

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