The solubility and the physicochemical properties (densities, viscosities, refractive indices, conductivities and pH) in the
liquid-solid metastable system (NaCl-KCl-CaCl2-H2O) at 308.15 K have been investigated using the isothermal evaporation method, and the dry-salt phase diagram, water-phase
diagram, and the diagram of physicochemical properties vs. composition in the system were plotted. One three-salt cosaturated point, three metastable solubility isotherm curves, and
three crystallization regions corresponding to sodium chloride, potassium chloride and calcium chloride tetrahydrate were
formed, and neither solid solution nor double salts were found. On the basis of the extended Harvie-Weare (HW) model and its
temperature-dependent equation, the values of the Pitzer parameters β(0), β(1), Cϕ for NaCl, KCl and CaCl2, the mixing ion-interaction parameters θNa,K, θNa,Ca, θK,Ca, ΨNa,K,Cl, ΨNa,Ca,Cl, ΨK,Ca,Cl, and the Debye-Hückel parameter Aϕ and the chemical potentials of the minerals in the quaternary system at 308.15 K were fitted, and the predictive solubility
based on the temperature-dependent equation and the chemical potentials of the minerals agrees well with the experimental
A characterization formula of an orthonormal multiwavelet with di_erent real dilations and translations for LE2(R) is presented. The result includes the known result on the classical Hardy space H2(R).
which was validated by the TPR and in-situ XRD experiments. The kinetic parameters of the reduction process were obtained with a comparative method. For the first step,
the activation energy, Ea, and the pre-exponential factor, A, were found to be 104.35 kJ mol−1 and 1.18�106∼2.45�109 s−1 respectively. The kinetic model was random nucleation and growth and the most probable mechanism function was found to be
f(α)=3/2(1−α)[−ln(1−α)]1/3 or in the integral form: g(α)=[−ln(1−α)]2/3. For the second step, the activation energy, Ea, and the pre-exponential factor, A, were found to be 118.20 kJ mol−1 and 1.75�107∼2.45 � 109s−1 respectively. The kinetic model was a second order reaction and the probable mechanism function was f(α)=(1−α)2 or in the integral form: g(α)=[1−α]−1−1.
Crystallization, morphology and mechanical properties of a spodumene-diopside glass ceramics with adding different amount
of CaO and MgO in Li2O-Al2O3-2SiO2 were investigated. With CaO and MgO addition, the crystallization temperature (Tp) decreased, the value of Avrami constant (n) decreased from 3.2±0.3 to 1.4±0.2, the activation energy (E) increased from 299±3 kJ mol−1 to 537±5 kJ mol−1. The crystalline phases precipitated were h-quartz solid solution, β-spodumene and diopside. The mechanism of crystallization of the glass ceramics changed from bulk
crystallization to surface crystallization. The grain sizes and thermal expansion coefficients increased while flexural strength
and fracture toughness of the glass-ceramics increased first, and then decreased. The mechanical properties were correlated
with crystallization and morphology of glass ceramics.
Authors:J.R. Li, D.X. Li, L. Li, W.L. Deng, L.S. Ding, H.X. Xu, and Y. Zhou
A rapid and sensitive ultraperformance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring-multi-stage/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MRM-MS/MS) method has been developed for simultaneous quantification of salvianolic acid B and tanshinone IIA of salvia tropolone tablets in dog plasma. This was achieved by performing quantification using the MRM acquisition with two channels of MRM-MS/MS and MS full scan for more accuracy qualitative results, and the fragmentation transitions of m/z 295→249, 191 for tanshinone IIA and m/z 297→279, 251 for IS in positive mode, m/z 717→519, 321 for salvianolic acid B and m/z 295→267, 239 for IS in negative mode were selected. The UPLC separation was achieved within 3 min in a single UPLC run. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration range of 10 pg/mL−1 ng/mL for tanshinone IIA and 100 pg/mL−1 for salvianolic acid B. Lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 10 pg/mL and 100 pg/mL for tanshinone IIA and salvianolic acid B, respectively. The inter-day and intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) in all samples were less than 8.21%, and the recoveries were over 85.9% for both tanshinone IIA and salvianolic acid B. The two channels of MRM with MS full scan approach could provide both qualitative and quantitative results without the need for repetitive analyses and resulted in the reduction of further confirmation experiments and analytical time. The pharmacokinetic study of the two active components of salvia tropolone tablets following oral gavage administration of dogs was thus explored with this method.
Authors:D. Jiang, X. Li, Z. Qiu, R. Lu, Y. Li, and G. Zhang
Nuclear microprobe was used to measure single aerosol particles (SAPs) indoors from Shanghai. Every particle is characterized
with its micro-PIXE spectrum, which can be considered as the fingerprint of the SAPs. The pattern recognition technique (PR)
was applied to trace the SAPs back to their source. Results of five monitor homes at different locations in Shanghai show
that most of the measured indoor aerosol particles are derived from soil dust, cement dust, vehicle exhaust, coal boilers
and steel mill dust.
Cytomixis has been described in many plant species, but not in
. The present study reports spontaneous cytomixis during microsporogenesis in
(2n = 42),
(2n = 70), and their F
hybrids with wheat. Cytomixis frequently occurred in early prophase I but very rarely in meiosis II. The type of cytomixis that occurred most often was where chromatins migrate from one nucleus into an adjacent cel1. Migration from one nucleus into two or more cells or from two or more nuclei into one cel1 was also observed. After a donor cell transferred chromatin to a recipient cell, the recipient cell would sometimes pass the chromatin on to another cell. Migration did not necessarily occur between cells in the same stage. Cytomixis in
and its hybrids with wheat was more complex than that in
. The possible causes, cytological consequences and genetic significance of cytomixis are discussed.
A separation procedure of trace platinum from large amounts of mercury and other interfering elements is described. After irradiation, the HgO target was dissolved in concentrated HCl solution. The thallium fraction was removed by solvent extraction with ether. In the aqueous phase after extraction the radioisotope of platinum produced by irradiation was precipitated as (NH4)2PtCl6 by adding a saturated solution of NH4Cl in the presence of H2PtCl6·6H2O as stable carrier. The decontamination factor of mercury, gold and thallium and the recovery of platinum in the process of separation are satisfactory.
Radioiodination of tri-n-butylstannyl-3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (TQNB) and N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (STB) was studied. STB was radiolabeled efficiently using iodogen to prepare radioactive N-succinimidyl-3- iodobenzoate (S125IB). TQNB was radioiodinated using Chloramine-T to obtain radioactive iodo-3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (125IQNB). Both S125IB and 125IQNB showed good stability at room temperature in the dark.