The solubility and the physicochemical properties (densities, viscosities, refractive indices, conductivities and pH) in the
liquid-solid metastable system (NaCl-KCl-CaCl2-H2O) at 308.15 K have been investigated using the isothermal evaporation method, and the dry-salt phase diagram, water-phase
diagram, and the diagram of physicochemical properties vs. composition in the system were plotted. One three-salt cosaturated point, three metastable solubility isotherm curves, and
three crystallization regions corresponding to sodium chloride, potassium chloride and calcium chloride tetrahydrate were
formed, and neither solid solution nor double salts were found. On the basis of the extended Harvie-Weare (HW) model and its
temperature-dependent equation, the values of the Pitzer parameters β(0), β(1), Cϕ for NaCl, KCl and CaCl2, the mixing ion-interaction parameters θNa,K, θNa,Ca, θK,Ca, ΨNa,K,Cl, ΨNa,Ca,Cl, ΨK,Ca,Cl, and the Debye-Hückel parameter Aϕ and the chemical potentials of the minerals in the quaternary system at 308.15 K were fitted, and the predictive solubility
based on the temperature-dependent equation and the chemical potentials of the minerals agrees well with the experimental
A characterization formula of an orthonormal multiwavelet with di_erent real dilations and translations for LE2(R) is presented. The result includes the known result on the classical Hardy space H2(R).
which was validated by the TPR and in-situ XRD experiments. The kinetic parameters of the reduction process were obtained with a comparative method. For the first step,
the activation energy, Ea, and the pre-exponential factor, A, were found to be 104.35 kJ mol−1 and 1.18�106∼2.45�109 s−1 respectively. The kinetic model was random nucleation and growth and the most probable mechanism function was found to be
f(α)=3/2(1−α)[−ln(1−α)]1/3 or in the integral form: g(α)=[−ln(1−α)]2/3. For the second step, the activation energy, Ea, and the pre-exponential factor, A, were found to be 118.20 kJ mol−1 and 1.75�107∼2.45 � 109s−1 respectively. The kinetic model was a second order reaction and the probable mechanism function was f(α)=(1−α)2 or in the integral form: g(α)=[1−α]−1−1.
Crystallization, morphology and mechanical properties of a spodumene-diopside glass ceramics with adding different amount
of CaO and MgO in Li2O-Al2O3-2SiO2 were investigated. With CaO and MgO addition, the crystallization temperature (Tp) decreased, the value of Avrami constant (n) decreased from 3.2±0.3 to 1.4±0.2, the activation energy (E) increased from 299±3 kJ mol−1 to 537±5 kJ mol−1. The crystalline phases precipitated were h-quartz solid solution, β-spodumene and diopside. The mechanism of crystallization of the glass ceramics changed from bulk
crystallization to surface crystallization. The grain sizes and thermal expansion coefficients increased while flexural strength
and fracture toughness of the glass-ceramics increased first, and then decreased. The mechanical properties were correlated
with crystallization and morphology of glass ceramics.
Authors:J.R. Li, D.X. Li, L. Li, W.L. Deng, L.S. Ding, H.X. Xu and Y. Zhou
A rapid and sensitive ultraperformance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring-multi-stage/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MRM-MS/MS) method has been developed for simultaneous quantification of salvianolic acid B and tanshinone IIA of salvia tropolone tablets in dog plasma. This was achieved by performing quantification using the MRM acquisition with two channels of MRM-MS/MS and MS full scan for more accuracy qualitative results, and the fragmentation transitions of m/z 295→249, 191 for tanshinone IIA and m/z 297→279, 251 for IS in positive mode, m/z 717→519, 321 for salvianolic acid B and m/z 295→267, 239 for IS in negative mode were selected. The UPLC separation was achieved within 3 min in a single UPLC run. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration range of 10 pg/mL−1 ng/mL for tanshinone IIA and 100 pg/mL−1 for salvianolic acid B. Lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 10 pg/mL and 100 pg/mL for tanshinone IIA and salvianolic acid B, respectively. The inter-day and intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) in all samples were less than 8.21%, and the recoveries were over 85.9% for both tanshinone IIA and salvianolic acid B. The two channels of MRM with MS full scan approach could provide both qualitative and quantitative results without the need for repetitive analyses and resulted in the reduction of further confirmation experiments and analytical time. The pharmacokinetic study of the two active components of salvia tropolone tablets following oral gavage administration of dogs was thus explored with this method.
Authors:D. Jiang, X. Li, Z. Qiu, R. Lu, Y. Li and G. Zhang
Nuclear microprobe was used to measure single aerosol particles (SAPs) indoors from Shanghai. Every particle is characterized
with its micro-PIXE spectrum, which can be considered as the fingerprint of the SAPs. The pattern recognition technique (PR)
was applied to trace the SAPs back to their source. Results of five monitor homes at different locations in Shanghai show
that most of the measured indoor aerosol particles are derived from soil dust, cement dust, vehicle exhaust, coal boilers
and steel mill dust.
This work describes the induction, purification and partial biochemical characterizations of an antimicrobial protein from the housefly larvae induced by ultrasonic wave. It has been purified to apparent homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-75, Bio-gel P6 gel filtration, and CM-Sepharose Fast Flow cation exchange chromatography. The protein is a cationic protein with an apparent molecular weight of 16315 Da determined by no-denaturing electrophoresis and SDS-PAGE, respectively. Biochemical profile assays show that this protein has good thermal stability, and repeatedly frozen and defrosted durability. The optimum pH for antimicrobial activity is around pH5. The antimicrobial range of the protein includes Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and some fungi. Results of the membrane permeability assays suggest that the probable mode of action of this protein is membrane-disrupting mechanism.
Authors:D. Paquin, K. Yanagihara, W. Grannis and Q. Li
There are millions of acres of chemically contaminated lands on which biofuel crops can be planted for dual purposes of biomass production and land reclamation. Phytoremediation is a proven technology for environmental cleanup, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical environments. There are advantages in that multiple growing seasons and increased soil temperature accelerate the clean-up processes. Seeds of 13 tropical and temperate plant species were germinated and grown for 10 days in petroleum contaminated soil containing 3148 μg/g of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that the presence of PAHs enhanced both emergence and early seedling growth with some of the species tested. Kiawe tree germination rate was 7-fold higher in PAH soils than that in the control media. The potential biofuel grasses sugarcane, banagrass, switch grass, vetiver and miscanthus showed degradation of PAHs in at least one of the amended PAH-contaminated soils in 35 days of growth. Banagrass biomass production in all the treatments was far greater than the other four species. No plant control pots were most effective to reduce PAHs in the un-amended PAH soil. Vetiver degraded all PAHs when planted in the PAH soil amended with 1/3 of the Promix soil (a 2/3 PAH soil volume). Among five biofuel crops tested, banagrass produced a tripled amount or more of biomass than all the other species in the LF-14 un-amended PAH soil or its amended soils. The dry weight (dw) biomass of banagrass averaged ∼3 g/day/3-L pot in all PAH soils and 6 g/day/3-L pot in Promix as harvested at the ground level. Banagrass in 90-cm spacing could produce approximately 30 tons/ha/yr of dry matter in a 70-day crop season. The results warrant further investigation of biofuel crops for phytoremediation and biomass production purposes. Future plantings may be considered using these and other crops in combination with applicable contaminants to help clean up the contaminated environment and reduce petroleum dependency.
Authors:D. Li, O. Sihamala, S. Bhulaidok and L. Shen
Edible black ant (
Roger) is a traditional edible insect species in China. It has long been used as an important ingredient of health foods. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes of organic compounds following sun drying of edible black ant. The results showed that fresh and sun dried edible black ant samples have 28 organic components. Nine of them found in the present study have not been reported previously such as 8-heptadecene and (E,E)-6,10,14-trimethyl-5,9,13-pentadecatrien-2-one. Five constituents disappeared and 4 components formed while the ant was sun dried. The major organic compounds of fresh and sun dried edible black ant belong to fatty acids and hydrocarbons. Some compounds such as fatty acids, aldehyde and alkanes appeared during the procedure indicating that sun drying speeds up lipid oxidation and hydrolytic rancidity.