Atmospheric ascospores have been monitored using volumetric spore trap. Spore concentration data were analysed using Spearman's correlation. Our results show that the meteorological factor with the greatest effect on spore concentration was the duration of rain. Temperature increase strongly reduced the ascospore concentration; but the length of windless periods resulted in an increase in spore count. The only measurable effect wind perse actually had on spore count, was registered when a strong wind blew after a long windless period. We observed that the count of ascospores during wet weather could surpass the total concentration of dry conidia measured on a typical, highly polluted summer day. Using selected air samples to study the effect of storms, certain aspects of long-distance spore transport were elucidated. We describe here three main strategies for long-range ascospore transport, “splash-off”, “secondary emission” and “sporematrix projectiles”.
In the present paper 23 species of
corticolous and other hyphomycetes are reported from Hungary. Several species
of these fungi have scarcely been reported and species such as Cephaliophora
muscicola, Cheiromyces inflatus, Sporidesmiella brachysporioides, Trimmatostroma
betulinum, Trinacrium incurvum were found to be new to Hungary.
The aim of this study is to summarize the fungal data collected by the authors in the territory of the forest Budakeszi near Budapest, since 1995-2001. A total of 177 fungi (150 species) was enumerated from the forests around Budakeszi. The presence of Physarum bitectum is the first data from Hungary. A rarely rust, Puccinia komarovii has appeared year by year in high quantity on Impatiens parviflora in the Virág-völgy. Another widespread rust was Puccinia conii on Conium maculatum, that was known as a member of the mycoflora of this area 180 years ago.
An ability to switch between a yeast-like form and a filamentous form was found among fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides strains. These strains form yeast-like colonies in Sabouraud’s agar plates, containing 9%NaCl at 37°C in the dark. F. verticillioides strains in blood agar plates produce grass-green haemolytic reactions as a result of haemoglobin degradation. The possible role of these morphological forms in infectious diseases of humans and animals is discussed.
Airborne propagules of Fusarium spp. were collected on Fusarium selective medium with Andersen sampler in maize field. Fusarium isolates were identified based on morphological characters and using speciesspecific primersVERT 1/2, PRO 1/2 and SUB 1/2. The PCR analysis confirmed morphological identification of F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. The VERTF 1/2 set of primers were used to discriminate potential fumonisin-producing strains of F. verticillioides, and all F. verticillioides strains scored positive for VERTF 1/2 pair of primers. This is the first study where specific primers were used for the confirmation of morhological determination of the above-mentioned Fusarium species, and selection of fumonisin-producing airborne isolates of F. verticillioides in Hungary.
Authors:D. Magyar, A. Mura-Mészáros, and F. Grillenzoni
Studying fungal diversity in various environmental samples provides us with valuable knowledge about the occurrence of fungi of medical and ecological importance. Moreover, fungal composition may also characterise well the botanical and geographical source of food products, such as the origin of the spore enriched honeydew honeys. Thereby, we identified a wide spectrum of fungi found in 100 of honey samples from various geographical sources – most of them were from Italy, Greece and Hungary. Our honeydew honeys had a higher mean of the number of spore types found in them than floral honeys had. Statistically significant differences in diversity were found regarding the botanical source (p = 1.29 × 10–9) and the climatic classification (p = 2.28 × 10–2) according to Kruskal– Wallis rank sum tests. Most frequently encountered genera included ubiquitous saprotrophic species (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum nigrum, Stemphylium), both in floral and honeydew honeys. On the other hand, certain sooty moulds like Aureobasidium pullulans, Tripospermum and Capnobotrys were rather present in different types of honeydew honeys. Metschnikowia reukaufii, the nectar inhabiting yeast reached considerably high quantities in floral honey samples. Present findings encourage further studies on quantifying the occurrence and the indicator value of specific fungal elements in honey, concerning its origin.
Authors:Á. Szécsi, D. Magyar, S. Tóth, and C. Szőke
Fusarium is globally one of most important genera of fungi, causing an array of plant diseases, producing mycotoxins and adversely affecting human health. Some Fusarium species are associated with grasses, as saprophytes, endophytes or pathogens. A study was carried out on the distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with non-agricultural grasses, maize, sorghum and millet in Hungary. Grasses (Poaceae), both agricultural and wild, are important hosts of pathogenic Fusarium species. Little is known, however, about endophytic fusaria in wild grasses in Hungary.The aim of this paper was to present data on the occurrence of fusaria on grass species collected from wild populations. A total of 106 plants belonging to 43 different grass species were collected in different locations in Hungary, and 11 different Fusarium species were isolated from the stems of 62.3% of the plant samples. The most common species were F. compactum (19.1%), F. equiseti (16.2%) and F. graminearum (14.7%). Wild grasses are a rich source of endophytic Fusarium isolates for the production of metabolites with antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This is the first report on the diversity of endophytic Fusarium associated with grasses in Hungary.
Authors:Zs. Koncz, D. Magyar, Z. Naár, A. Kiss, and Á. Szécsi
The species-specific PCR assays correctly identified pure cultures of
(13 isolates), and
(6 isolates) originated from Hungarian wheat grain.The PCR-based assays described in this study can be used for the routine detection and identification of above-mentioned Fusaria without morphological determination.
Authors:E. Magyar, K. Buchgraber, D. Warner, and L. Szemán
(Influence of fertilisation and grassland management on the development of herbs on permanent grassland.) — This investigation was carried out (HBLFA Raumberg-Gumpenstein) with differently kind of fertilisation and cutting regimes on permanent meadows. This paper focuses on influence of grassland management on plant composition with special regard to herbs. Extensive management leads to an increase in herbs. The main reason is an open sward, leading to many gaps. Fodder quality is medium in these species-poor stands. Intensive management practices leads to an increases in the proportion of grasses and several herbs which are adapted to increased management intensity. Fodder quality increases, except of a high degree of coverage by
. Highest plant species richness is related to moderately management practice. Species richness will decreases both extensive and intensive management in a long-term.
Authors:T. Magyar, R. Glávits, G. D. Pullinger, and A. J. Lax
The effect of dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) expression of Bordetella bronchiseptica was studied in mice by comparing the pathology induced by a wild type strain with that induced by an isogenic DNT- strain in which part of the structural gene has been replaced by an antibiotic resistance cassette. While extracts of strain B58 proved toxic in intravenously inoculated mice, similar extracts from strain B58GP had lost toxic activity. The parent (B58) and the mutant (B58GP) strains of B. bronchiseptica each possessed comparable virulence for mice. These findings confirmed that DNT production was successfully abolished in strain B58GP while other virulence characteristics required for pathogenicity in mice remained intact, at a comparable level to the parent strain. Turbinate atrophy was observed in mice infected with the DNT+ strain, but not in those infected with the DNT-strain. This indicates that DNT is the cause of turbinate atrophy in the mice and not other factors produced by phase I strains of B. bronchiseptica. B. bronchiseptica DNT showed a lienotoxic effect (lymphocyte depletion and a reduction in the intensity of extramedullar haemocytopoieis) that is considered to adversely alter the immune function of the host animal. In mice infected with strain B58GP, catarrhal pneumonia with characteristic lympho-histiocytic peribronchial and perivascular infiltration was noticed. In mice infected with strain B58, large necrotic areas were seen surrounded by an inflammatory reaction. The DNT appears to directly damage lung tissues, at least in mice. DNT production seems to enhance the establishment of B. bronchiseptica in the lungs, presumably by reducing the local resistance and causing severe local damage to the lung tissues.