This is a brief history of how a small group of people carried out its mandate to survey and map Canada in spite of the hostile environment — the second largest country in the world — in a 100 years.The levelling started from Halifax and by 1916 it reached Vancouver completing the coast-to-coast connection, encompassing about 22 000 km distance of which 94% was done on the railway tracks. The adjustment was carried out in 9 steps, it included the tide gauges in both the east and west coast, and was completed in 1928. The final adjustment used about 37 000 km length, from which 30 000 was measured by the GS. The first order re-levelling started after the Second World War and was carried out on the Trans-Canada highway. By 1994 Canada was covered by a levelling network of about 109 747 km. After this date there was no more conventional levelling.The triangulation used cross-braced quadrilaterals, based on the method used in the USA. In 1961 the GS started to use the conventional methods of chains of triangles. The measurements covered mostly the very southern part of Canada. The mapping of middle and northern part of the country had to await until the electronic era, which was practically made for Canada.The lower order accuracy was provided by Shoran, using about the average of 400 km line length for triangulation. Between 1947 and 1957 this method provided 501 measured triangle sides of about 200 000 km in total length and provided 119 base-point covering about 65% of Canada.The other method, the Aerodist — the Tellurometer version of Shoran — provided second order accuracy. The triangulation, using cross-braced quadrilaterals, with 100 km sides gave 219 points and covered about 25% of the land area of Canada. The measurements were done between 1965 and 1973.Recent measurements make use of GPS for geodetic position determination. A 10 year program started in 1987. In 1992 the GSD defined an official geoid to be used in connection with all satellite work.
Samples of full blood of vitiligo patients and those of control persons were analyzed for Se, Cr, Co and Ni contents by neutron activation analysis. The concentrations are reported in ppm/dry weight. The results showed that the Se and Co levels were significantly higher in the blood of vitiligo patients while the increase of Cr and Ni was not significant as compared to the controls.
Authors:D. Cserhalmi, J. Nagy, D. Neidert and D. Kristóf
The study area is the peaty bed of Nyíres-tó mire which is situated in the northeastern Alföld on the Bereg Plain. For this paper we used a digital photo interpretation method with which we reconstructed the former vegetation from black and white aerial photos, and made chronosequence of vegetation maps. The image segmentation method dissolves the photo into different objects (segments) by spectral and textural parameters. The segments consist of similar pixels, representing a unique ground object. We made the segmentation with the Definiens Inc. eCognition software. The stability of the mire was calculated with GRID-files. The historical vegetation maps show, that after many arid years, the tree or shrub dominant associations increased until the eighties. Later, the sufficient precipitation and the artificial flooding stabilised the tree covering. The analysis of GRID-files shown, that 45.77% of the pixels get code 1 (stable), 44.32% get code 2 (slightly changeable) and only 9.91% get code 3 (changeable). It means that almost half of the mire’s vegetation is the same as in 1952.
The study area is the peaty bed of Navad-patak mire situated in the North-Eastern Alföld, on the Bereg plain, which is slightly investigated area. The purpose of our research was to reconstruct the recent vegetation dynamic processes of the mire from 1950 till 2005. Beside the aerial photos we used the ERDAS Imagination remote sensing program, and made digital photo interpretation. We divided the vegetation history into three parts. In the first period, the nutrient load of the mire was increased, peat decaying and foresting processes started, the open peat-moss dominated associations (
Eriophoro vaginati-Sphagnetum, Carici lasiocarpae-Sphagnetum
) were disappeared. In the second period the expansion of the forest vegetation continued, the species composition transformed, and the characteristic species of the mentioned associations (
Eriophorum vaginatum, E. angustifolium, Carex lasiocarpa, Drosera rotundifolia, Sphagnum magellanicum
) were all disappeared. The third period starts with the artificial flooding in 1994. In the beginning the peat-mosses were all extinct, floating mires appeared immediately and their quick succession started and still runs. The fourth period would be start with the appearance of peat-mosses.
The paper presents significant aspects regarding the concept and details of constructive solutions used to design and implement an energy efficient school building in Romania. Although the site is in a moderate seismic zone, the structural needs of the building impose specific insulation solutions for making the passive house concept applicable. Renewable energy sources are also applied to optimize the maintenance cost and to reduce the payback period to a feasible level. In order to prove the benefits of the solutions, to justify the higher initial investment, to improve the real-time energy consumption of the building, as well as to keep track of the internal climate parameters, a complex monitoring system was planned and implemented. Details and correlation between specific details and temperature sensors distribution are also presented.
Authors:Á. Nagy, Z. Kovács, D. Szöllösi and A. Fekete
The potentiometric electronic tongue is a new and rapidly developing technique. However, the description of the exact working mechanism is still absent. An important part of this description is the effect of the sample temperature on the measurement results. The paper reported here gives a description of the effect of temperature on results obtained with an α-Astree potentiometric electronic tongue. The yielded model was used to perform a temperature correction as if the samples were measured at room temperature (25 °c).
Authors:M. Molnár-Láng, G Linc, E. D. Nagy and et al.
New wheat × barley, wheat × Aegilops biuncialis and wheat × rye hybrids were produced with the aim of alien gene transfer from these species into wheat. Amphiploids were produced with the help of colchicine treatment from the last two combinations. The new wheat × barley hybrids were multiplied in tissue culture because of the high degree of sterility and then pollinated with wheat to obtain backcross progenies. Wheat-barley chromosome pairing was detected using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in two combinations (Mv9 kr1 × Igri, Asakazekomugi × Manas). In vitro conditions caused an increase in chromosome arm association frequency in both combinations and in fertility in some regenerants. Five wheat-barley translocations were produced in a wheat background and characterized through the combination of cytogenetic and molecular genetic approaches (GISH, FISH and SSR markers). The following translocations were identified: 2DS.2DL-1HS, 3HS.3BL, 6BS.6BL-4HL, 4D-5HS and 7DL.7DS-5HS. Physical mapping of the SSR markers on chromosomes 1H and 5H was carried out using the intragenomic and interspecific translocation breakpoints and the centromere as physical landmarks. Disomic wheat-Aegilops biuncialis additions were produced after backcrossing the wheat-Ae. biuncialis amphiploids. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out using two repetitive DNA clones (pSc119.2 and pAs1) on Ae. biuncialis and its two diploid progenitor species to detect chromosome polymorphism. The 7M and 3M disomic chromosome additions were selected and five more lines still need to be characterized. The octoploid triticale (Mv9 kr1 × Lovászpatonai) produced in Martonvásár was crossed with a 1RS.1BL wheat cultivar Matador. GISH analysis detected pairing between the 1RS arm of the translocation chromosome and that of Lovászpatonai rye in 32 % of the pollen mother cells, making it possible to select recombinants from this combination. The new recombinants between the 1RS of Petkus and the 1RS of Lovászpatonai rye cultivars are being analysed with the help of microsatellite markers.
Authors:D. Hadanich, J. Perédi, M. Juhász-Román and B. Nagy
In the microflora of sunflower seeds stored in domestic stores the,
species dominate, while those of
Penicillium, Trichoderma, Stemphylium
spp. are present in lower numbers. During model tests (cca 20% seed moisture content, 25 °C, 4 weeks storage) the
species were almost completely eliminated and on the seeds mainly
species, characteristic of stores, propagated. The moulds significantly deteriorated the quality of the seed and that of the produced oil and meal (reproductive ability, germinating power, oil content, lipoxygenase enzyme activity, acid value, peroxide value, fatty acid composition, UV absorbance, colour, sensorial properties, as well as the protein content, amino acid composition, colour and the smell of the meal), but no aflatoxin production occurred. The findings offer a comprehensive picture on the multiple destructive effects of incorrect storage.