Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author or Editor: D. Ovadyahu x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract  

Montmorillonite and Laponite loaded with different amounts of tributylammonium cations (TBAH+), up to 40 and 30 mmol, respectively, per 100 g clay, were studied by thermo-XRD-analysis. TBAH-smectites heated at 300 and 420°C exhibited basal spacings of 1.30 and 1.24 nm, attributed to smectite tactoids with low- and high-temperature-stable monolayer charcoals, respectively in the interlayers. DTA-EGA and TG of the TBAH-smectites showed four stages of mass loss labeled A, B, C and D. Stage A below 250°C, accompanied by an endothermic DTA peak, resulted from the dehydration of the clay. Mass loss stages B, C and D, at 250–380, 380–605°C and above 605°C, respectively, accompanied by exothermic DTA peaks, were due to three oxidation steps of the organic matter. In mass loss stage B (first oxidation step) mainly organic hydrogen was oxidized to H2O whereas carbon and nitrogen formed low- and high-temperature-stable charcoals. In stages C and D (second and third oxidation steps) low- and high-temperature- stable charcoals were oxidized, respectively. Dehydroxylation of the smectites occurred together with the second and third oxidation steps. Thermal mass loss at each step was calculated from the TG curves showing that in montmorillonite the percentage of high-temperature-stable charcoal from total charcoal decreased with higher TBAH+ loadings of the clay whereas in Laponite this percentage increased with higher loadings of the clay.

Restricted access
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
N. Lahav
,
D. Ovadyahu
,
A. Gutkin
,
E. Mastov
,
T. Menjeritzki
,
A. Adin
,
L. Rubinstein
,
D. Tropp
, and
S. Yariv

Abstract  

A device was constructed in which a clay suspension is hermetically heated at 220°C for a few minutes. This thermal treatment is accompanied by a pressure increase in the cell. Once the valve is opened, there is a fast release of the pressure inside the cell and a sudden evolution of the interparticle water. This shock leads to a quasi explosion of the clay particle. This technique was named thermal vapour pressure shock explosion (TSE). The effect of TSE treatment on the properties of palygorskite suspensions was investigated. Palygorskite suspensions in water are rather unstable and particles smaller than 3 μm in size are not found before a TSE treatment. Stabilization of the suspension can be obtained by TSE treatments and/or by using a dispersing agent such as pyrophosphate, or both. As a result of TSE treatments smaller particles are obtained, the dispersiveness of the particles is improved and electrophoretic mobility is increased. Electron microscopy scans showed that the aggregates of needles which form the palygorskite fibres, disintegrate to separated thin needles as a result of the TSE treatment.

Restricted access