Geophysical data are specific physical responses of geological formations distributed over an area. These data are normally the physical parameters such as density, velocity, resistivity, susceptibility etc. of geological sources and hence bring a pattern of geological structures. It is conceived accordingly that this pattern recognition of such geophysical data will throw light on the spatial distribution and physical attributes of their geological sources. The well logging method considered as one of the geophysical method for the exploration of hydrocarbon, coal and base-metals, also has a strong role in finding the location and evaluation of geological resources.A novel approach known as Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System technique (ANFIS) is made to identify stratigraphy of Prydz Bay basin, east Antarctica. A geological stratum in terms of 1D model is made using datasets obtained from this area. The 1D model deduced as an ANFIS result is able to make geological sense of even additional thin sand sandwiched between clayey silt strata seams which unable to be resolved by other conventional methods. The analysed ANFIS results deduced to map horizons for hydrocarbon prospecting is verified with known coring datasets. These results are encouraging and provide stable and consistent solutions.
Effects of one
pre-emergence herbicide (terbutryn/terbuthylazine) and one post-emergence
herbicide (bentazone) along with unweeded and hand-weeded controls on weeds and
on the nodulation, nitrogenase activity, nitrogen content, growth and yield of
pea (Pisum sativum) were studied. Terbutryn/terbuthylazine was applied
pre-emergence @ 1.40, 2.80 and 5.60 kg/hawhereas bentazone was
sprayed 6 weeks after sowing @ 1.44, 2.88 and 5.76 kg/h.
Terbutryn/terbuthylazine controlled all the weeds very effectively, whereas
bentazone did not control some weeds such as Polygonum aviculare, Poa
annua and Elymus repens. The herbicides decreased the number of
nodules, the dry weight of nodules, the nitrogenase activity, the shoot dry
weight, the nitrogen content in the straw and seeds, and the seed yield of
peas, the effects generally being higher at higher rates of application. The
adverse effects of herbicides on these parameters might be due to their effects
on plant growth, as both the herbicides are known to adversely affect
photosynthesis. Nitrogenase activity did not correlate well with plant-N
content or shoot dry weight. However, there was a strong relationship between
plant biomass and plant-N content, which suggests that researchers can rely on
these parameters for studying the effects of treatments on nitrogen fixation,
rather than measuring nitrogenase activity.
In a pot experiment the effects of the length of incubation period and the pre-emergence application of terbutryn/terbuthylazine at 2.80 kg a.i. ha-1 or post-emergence application of bentazone at 2.88 kg a.i. ha-1 on the nitrogenase activity in intact pea plants were measured in situ by the acetylene reduction assay. An incubation period of 10 min resulted in the highest nitrogenase activity. As the length of the incubation period increased to 30 or 60 min the total as well as the specific nitrogenase activity decreased. Terbutryn/terbuthylazine decreased the total nitrogenase activity at all three (i.e. vegetative, flowering and seed-filling) stages, whereas bentazone resulted in a significant decrease at the flowering stage only. However, terbutryn/terbuthylazine-treated plants had the highest specific nitrogenase activity both at the flowering and seed-filling stages.
The effects of the pre-emergence application of terbutryn/terbuthylazine at 1.40 and 2.80 kg a.i./ha and prometryn at 1.70 and 3.40 kg a.i./ha and the post-emergence application of bentazone at 1.44 and 2.88 kg a.i./ha were studied on nodulation, root and shoot growth in two pea varieties, namely Rex and Guido. Of these the lower rates are the recommended rates for field application. Bentazone even at the recommended rate decreased nodule dry weight, whereas all three herbicides at double the recommended rate (except terbutryn/terbuthylazine in Rex) decreased the number and dry weight of nodules. Terbutryn/terbuthylazine and bentazone decreased root dry weight to a greater extent, whereas prometryn had only a slight effect. Shoot growth was adversely affected by all three herbicides in both the varieties, but prometryn and bentazone had less adverse effects in Rex than in Guido. Compared to the recommended rate, the herbicides had a greater adverse effect on nodulation at double the recommended rate.
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and batch calorimetry techniques have been used to evaluate the effect of added antioxidant
(Quercetin, QN) on the binding between a polymer/surfactant complex, namely the sodium salt of polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)
and typical anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). An indirect isotherm approximation method and the Satake–Yang
model have been used to evaluate the binding parameter (Ku), adsorption cooperativity (u), and the Gibbs free energy of cooperative and non-cooperative binding (ΔGC and ΔGN) from the ITC data. The enthalpy of dissolution of QN into various PSS/water and PSS/SDS/water solutions has been evaluated
from batch calorimetry to study the energetics of the polymer/surfactant binding in the presence of QN.
The nitrate complexes of copper, nickel and zinc with diethylenetriamine (dien) i.e. [Cu(dien)2](NO3)2, [Ni(dien)2](NO3)22H2O and [Zn(dien)2](NO3)2 have been prepared and characterised. Thermal studies were undertaken using TG-DTG, DSC, ignition delay (tid) and ignition temperature (IT) measurements. Impact sensitivity was measured using drop mass technique. The kinetic parameters for both non-isothermal
and isothermal decomposition of the complexes were evaluated by employing Coats-Redfern (C-R) method and Avrami-Erofeev (A-E)
equations (n=2 and 3), respectively. The kinetic analysis, using isothermal TG data, was also made on the basis of model free isoconversional
method and plausible mechanistic pathways for their decomposition are proposed. Rapid process was assessed by ignition delay
measurements. All these complexes were found to be insensitive towards impact of 2 kg mass hammer up to the height limit (110
cm) of the instrument used. The heat of reaction (?H) for each stage of decomposition was determined using DSC.
Experiments have been conducted to study the diffusion of iodide, cesium and strontium ions through intact and fractured rock samples of charnockite rock formation present at Kalpakkam, India. The diffusion coefficient (Di) of these ions for the intact and fractured rock samples has been evaluated and is found to be ranging from 0.76·10–14 to 6.25·10–14 m2/s and 0.67·10–9 to 84.6·10–9 m2/s, respectively. The study reveals that despite the sorbing nature of Cs and Sr, these ions diffuse comparatively faster than the iodide ion (non-sorbing) through the intact and fractured rock mass. The results have been validated vis-à-vis those reported in the literature and a good agreement has been noticed. This paper deals with details of the testing methodology developed to assess the radionuclide migration as well as the rock mass suitability for safe disposal of the radioactive waste.
The extraction behavior of uranium (VI) from chloride medium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC-88A) in dodecane has been investigated under wide range of conditions. Attempts have been made to establish the extraction mechanism of uranium(VI) with PC-88A. Treatment of the distribution data by slope analysis technique showed the formation of a monomeric complex of the nature [UO2(A2H)2]. Formation of this species was also confirmed by non-linear least square regression of the distribution data to the mathematical expression correlating percentage extraction and acidity. In this investigation attempts have also been made to develop a mathematical model for the system (UO2Cl2-HCl-H2O-PC-88A-dodecane) using experimental data on the distribution of uranium against initial aqueous acidity at different initial metal concentration. The mathematical model D = 37.547±0.223/Ci1/2×[Hi]2 can be used to predict the concentration of uranium in organic as well as in aqueous phases at any initial concentration of uranium [Ci] and initial hydrogen ion concentration [Hi]. The extraction constant (Kex) has been calculated.
Authors:R. Singh, L. Ram, R.K. Singh and D. Singh Jakhar
Maize protein quality is deficit in essential amino acids, lysine and tryptophan. These constraints of o2 (opaque2) are corrected in genetically improved, hard endosperm QPM (Quality Protein Maize). An integrated strategy of phenotypic selection for endosperm modifiers and molecular marker-assisted foreground and background selection has been used in present study. The QPM donors were, CML 161, DMRQPM 58, CML 176 and CML 141 whereas, normal maize inbreds were CM 212, V338, V361, V336, V341, V351, CM 141 and V335. The inbreds were subjected to parental polymorphism survey between non-QPM and QPM using CIMMYT based three SSR markers, viz. phi057, umc1066 and phi112. Two markers, viz. phi057 and umc1066 exhibited co-dominant reactions, while phi112 was dominant in nature. Finally, two combinations V335 × CML 141 and V351 × CML 141 were considered for conversion program. Foreground selection was exercised using o2 specific marker umc1066 in BC1 and BC2 generations, while background as well as foreground selection was exercised in BC2F3 generation to recover the genome of recurrent parent up to extent of 80 to 100% with the help of SSR markers distributed across the whole maize genome. The tryptophan concentration in endosperm protein was significantly enhanced and the converted maize lines had almost twice the amount of lysine and tryptophan than normal maize inbreds.