Authors:Gábor Takács, Cs. Szalay, B. Nagy, I. Szabó, D. Simon, T. Berki, and Z. Karádi
The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), an important basal forebrain structure, has a central integratory function in the control of feeding and metabolism. The primary cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) exerts its neuromodulatory effects on the endocrine functions both centrally and peripherally. The present study was designed to elucidate the possible consequences of direct administration of IL-1β into the NAcc on the endocrine regulation of metabolism. Plasma concentrations of insulin and leptin, two key hormones in the homeostatic control were determined 15 minutes after a single bilateral microinjection of IL-1β into the NAcc of adult male Wistar rats, and the effects were compared with those found in vehicle treated control animals. Insulin plasma levels of the cytokine treated animals were significantly higher than those parameters of the control rats. No differences were found in leptin plasma concentrations between the two groups. Our findings show that IL-1β mediated processes in the NAcc have important roles in the central neuroendocrine control.
Authors:V. Palya, M. Nagy, R. Glávits, Éva Ivanics, D. Szalay, Á. Dán, T. Süveges, B. Markos, and B. Harrach
Epidemiological, pathological, serological and virological investigations are reported on turkey haemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV) infection in Hungarian turkey flocks. The pathogenesis of infection in experimentally infected turkeys and chickens, as well as the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing method for epidemiological investigation and for the differentiation of vaccine and field strains of THEV was also studied. Since the first recognition of the disease in Hungary in the late 1970s, until recently the disease has been diagnosed sporadically in its mild form. In the last few years (2000–2005), however, the number of outbreaks and the severity of the disease increased (9–23 affected flocks/year). Most of the outbreaks occurred at the age of 6 to 8 weeks and was complicated with
infection. The antibody levels to THEV in turkey flocks gradually declined till 5–7 weeks of age, and then they increased sharply due to natural infection with THEV. The immune response to vaccination (at 5 weeks of age) showed no significant antibody level increase one week postvaccination, but four weeks later the antibody level reached high values and then remained at this high level. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test to detect turkey adenovirus A (TAdV-A) antigen and PCR methods for THEV-specific DNA gave similarly positive results if spleens with pathognomonic lesions were tested; however, PCR proved to be more sensitive in cases with less characteristic pathological lesions. Nucleotide sequence alignment of PCR products amplified from Hungarian field strains and the Domermuth vaccine strain and that of the published THEV hexon sequences in GenBank database revealed slight differences between the sequences.
Authors:Sz. Gy. Szerencsés, S. Beszédes, Zs. László, G. Veréb, D. Szalay, Zs. Hovorkáné Horváth, C. Hodúr, G. Rákhely, and Sz. Kertész
In this study, statistical analysis was performed to investigate the influence of operational parameters based on experimental results. The research aimed to know whether a long-term discontinuous module vibration operation is possible without adversely affecting filtration efficiency. Polymer membranes were compared by surface characteristics with contact angle measurements and selected for further membrane filtration experiments for dairy wastewater treatment. The effect of the main operational parameters, membrane module vibration amplitude (Avibr.) and transmembrane pressure (TMP), was investigated using a vibratory shear enhanced processing (VSEP) module with ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes. Components of the permeates, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), were measured, and membrane rejections were calculated to compare with threshold limit values. The results suggest that proper combination of Avibr. and TMP could mitigate membrane fouling. However, discontinuous module vibration resulted in more clogged membrane with lower fluxes, but slightly higher rejections. We conclude that investigating the significance of operational parameters is necessary for a wider, more energy and environment-friendly application in wastewater treatment.