Authors:H. Dębski, W. Wiczkowski, D. Szawara-Nowak, N. Bączek, M. Szwed, and M. Horbowicz
The effects of two light intensities on the concentration of several flavonoids were investigated in the cotyledons of common buckwheat seedlings. The study was performed on four days old seedlings of cvs. Hruszowska, Panda, Kora and Red Corolla. One group of seedlings was grown under exposure to 180 ± 20 μmol · m−2 · s−1 photosynthetically active radiation, whereas the other group was exposed to 360 ± 20 μmol · m−2 · s−1. The experiment lasted 5 days. The results revealed that light intensity induces changes in the levels of flavonols and flavones. Increased light intensity contributed to a decrease in the concentrations of all flavone C-glucosides: orientin (luteolin-8-C-glucoside) and iso-orientin (luteolin-6-C-glucoside), and apigenin: vitexin (apigenin-8-C-glucoside) and iso-vitexin (apigenin-6-C-glucoside). Simultaneously, a substantial increase in the content of flavonols, i.e. quercetin O-glycosides, was found. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence to demonstrate the contrary responses of plant flavonols and flavones to light intensity. The content of anthocyanin also increased under exposure to higher light intensity. Our results indicate that quercetin O-glycosides can play a similar role to anthocyanins in the cotyledons of common buckwheat seedlings. Results of correlation analysis indicate that the increase in flavonol and anthocyanin concentrations in response to higher light intensity is maintained through reduced accumulation of flavones and proanthocyanidins.
Authors:W. Wiczkowski, D. Szawara-Nowak, T. Sawicki, J. Mitrus, Z. Kasprzykowski, and M. Horbowicz
The aim of the study was to analyse the content of phenolic acids, total phenolic compounds, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant capacity in cotyledons and hypocotyl of five cultivars of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprout. This study presents the first broad profile of phenolic acids occurring in buckwheat microgreen seedlings. In the hypocotyl and cotyledons trans-cinnamic acid and its derivatives: o-, m-, and p-coumaric acids (2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxycinnamic), synapic acid (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamic), caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic), and two isomers of ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic) have been identified. Among the benzoic acid derivatives hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic), gallic (3,4,5-dihydroxybenzoic) and syringic (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic) were found in the organs. In addition to those mentioned, the organs of buckwheat sprouts contain chlorogenic acid as well. The contents of all analysed phenolics were substantially higher in the cotyledons than in the hypocotyl of buckwheat sprouts, except for chlorogenic and caffeic acids. Trans-cinnamic acid was the major phenolic acid in both organs. In the cotyledons, a significant, positive linear correlation between the TEAC, ORAC, PLC-ACW values and content of total phenolic compounds, and also between DPPH and total phenolic acids were found. In the hypocotyl correlations between the DPPH, TEAC, and ORAC and proanthocyanidins content, between TEAC and total phenolic compounds, and between total phenolic acids and PCL-ACW were found.