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The aim of this study is to summarize the fungal data collected by the authors in the territory of the forest Budakeszi near Budapest, since 1995-2001. A total of 177 fungi (150 species) was enumerated from the forests around Budakeszi. The presence of Physarum bitectum is the first data from Hungary. A rarely rust, Puccinia komarovii has appeared year by year in high quantity on Impatiens parviflora in the Virág-völgy. Another widespread rust was Puccinia conii on Conium maculatum, that was known as a member of the mycoflora of this area 180 years ago.

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The statistical analysis of salinity data from samples collected yearly from genetic soil horizons of 69 points of the Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System between 1992 and 2000 showed changes in time. There is a strong atmospheric control over the groundwater level and the resulting soil salinity. Weak statistical association was established between either the pattern of yearly soil salinity changes in the second (10-20 cm) and third (30-40 cm) genetic horizon and the groundwater observation stations or the soil types. In the area of Kecskemét there was a tendency of decreasing soil salinity patterns, while around Békéscsaba a tendency of increasing soil salinity patterns, as illustrated by the correspondence biplot. Regarding soil types, the solonetzic meadow soil showed a tendency of increasing salinity. It was concluded that the statistical analyses of the monitored data must be carefully planned in order to provide the optimal background data as independent data from all those available to accompany the monitored soil data as dependent variable.

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In spite, that Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint. is one of the most serious fungal disease in apple orchards and it has been studied from numerous points of view, few studies examined the anatomical differences between scab resistant (Vf cultivars) and susceptible apple cultivars. We have investigated the possible anatomical background of the resistance or susceptibility against apple scab in gradually decaying fallen apple leaves. Specific differences were observed in the process of leaf degradation and in the structure of leaf tissues of each cultivar. The epidermis and the cuticle have continually become thinner during leaf degradation in the leaves of two resistant cultivars, while great deformations were observed in the leaf tissues of the susceptible cultivars caused by the hyphae in the mesophyllum and subcuticular stromas. When comparing the non-infected parts of susceptible leaves with those of the resistant cultivars, we documented earlier disintegration of the parenchyma and declined cohesion between the tissue elements. Fungal hyphae appeared on each cultivar but subcuticular stromas developed and hyphae could break through the epidermis and get into mesophyllum only in susceptible leaves. We have discovered calcium oxalate crystals in the mesophyllum of the leaves of each cultivars, that seems to be a general feature of apple leaves, which was not documented previously.

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Authors: Mária Adorjáni, Judit D. Tóth and Attila Jakab
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Authors: D. Tóth Judit, Mészáros Tamás and Gellérfi Gergő
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A ruderáliák talajaiban és növényeiben a feldúsult nehézfémek a környezetet szennyezik, és egyes növények - többek között a parlagfű ( Ambrosia elatior L . ) -képesek szerveikben az élettani igényeiknél nagyobb mennyiségben felhalmozni. Vizsgálatainkban tanulmányoztuk három − fajösszetételében, fémtartalmában és kialakulásában − eltérő terület talajának, valamint az ott tenyésző parlagfüvek gyökér, levél és virágzat „összes" kadmium-, réz-, nikkel- és cinktartalmát. A vizsgálati helyek távolsága légvonalban nem haladja meg a 20 km-t, az átlaghőmérséklet mindhárom vizsgálati évben (2000, 2001 és 2002) hasonló volt, a lehullott csapadékmennyiségek eltértek. A nem ruderália talaja átlagosan (0,42 mg Cd/kg; 2,32 mg Cu/kg; 5,25 mg Ni/kg; 40 mg Zn/kg), a kommunális hulladéklerakó (0,83 mg Cd/kg; 10,6 mg Cu/kg; 11,8 mg Ni/kg; 73 mg Zn/kg), az ipari galvániszap-tároló (3,33 mg Cd/kg; 159 mg Cu/kg; 457 mg Ni/kg; 3377 mg Zn/kg) fémeket tartalmazott, és a mennyiségek között - a kadmium kivételével - szignifikáns különbségek vannak. A talaj fémterhelésével növekszik a növények fémtartalma is. A parlagfű leginkább a gyökerekben halmozta a vizsgált fémeket. A nem ruderálián a gyökér (0,35 mg Cd/kg; 11,0 mg Cu/kg; 3,67 mg Ni/kg; 30,5 mg Zn/kg), a kommunális hulladéklerakón a gyökér (0,34 mg Cd/kg; 17,2 mg Cu/kg; 10,1 mg Ni/kg; 118 mg Zn/kg) fémeket tartalmazott. Az ipari galvániszap-tárolón (III.) tenyésző parlagfüvek gyökerében 0,97 mg/kg Cd-, 6,52 mg/kg Cu-, 17,9 mg/kg Ni- és 250 mg/kg Zn-tartalmat mértünk. A vizsgált fémmel nem szennyezett ruderálián (II.) a kontrollnak tekintett tölgytelepítéssel szemben (nem ruderália) nagyobb kadmium- (1,06 mg/kg), nikkel- (1,34 mg/kg) és cinktartalmat (73,3 mg/kg) mértünk a levelekben. Ugyanitt a virágzatban nagyobb a réz- (8,96 mg/kg) és cinktartalom (71,70 mg/kg). A fémmel szennyezett ipari ruderálián (III.) mind a levelekben (1,49 mg Cd/kg; 11,7 mg Cu/kg; 2,23 mg Ni/kg és 304 mg Zn/kg), mind a virágzatban (0,36 mg Cd/kg; 10,3 mg Cu/kg; 7,57 mg Ni/kg és 124 mg Zn/kg) több a fém, mint a nem ruderálián (I.). A talaj növekvő fémtartalma és a parlagfű kadmium-, nikkel és cinktartalma között erős pozitív korrelációkat mértünk. A parlagfű gyökerének, valamint levele és virágzata elemkoncentrációi közötti összefüggéseinek vizsgálatakor - a réz kivételével - erős korrelációkat kaptunk az iparterületen (III.). Az ipari galvániszap-tárolón a levél és virágzat Cd-felvételére vonatkozó korrelációs koefficiens értékei azt mutatják, hogy - eltérően az I. és II. vizsgálati hely adataitól - a kadmium és a többi fém közötti kapcsolat erősödik.

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Authors: Á. Szécsi, D. Magyar, S. Tóth and C. Szőke

Fusarium is globally one of most important genera of fungi, causing an array of plant diseases, producing mycotoxins and adversely affecting human health. Some Fusarium species are associated with grasses, as saprophytes, endophytes or pathogens. A study was carried out on the distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with non-agricultural grasses, maize, sorghum and millet in Hungary. Grasses (Poaceae), both agricultural and wild, are important hosts of pathogenic Fusarium species. Little is known, however, about endophytic fusaria in wild grasses in Hungary.The aim of this paper was to present data on the occurrence of fusaria on grass species collected from wild populations. A total of 106 plants belonging to 43 different grass species were collected in different locations in Hungary, and 11 different Fusarium species were isolated from the stems of 62.3% of the plant samples. The most common species were F. compactum (19.1%), F. equiseti (16.2%) and F. graminearum (14.7%). Wild grasses are a rich source of endophytic Fusarium isolates for the production of metabolites with antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This is the first report on the diversity of endophytic Fusarium associated with grasses in Hungary.

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Two-year seasonal monitoring of the flight of Phthorimaea operculella by means of pheromone traps was organized at four sites in three districts in Bulgaria: Sofia, Kyustendil and Plovdiv. Comparison between sticky traps and dry funnel traps has shown that sticky traps were much more effective in capturing of males of this pest than the dry ones. The results of our investigations showed that the pest could appear in the field as early as the end of March and also intensive flight could be observed up to the end of November. Single catches were registered even in January. However, because of overlapping of the generations, their number and periods of moth emergence was not possible to be distinguished by the catches in pheromone traps. Analyses of climatic data (mean air temperature and mean rainfall) indicated that none of the climatic variables investigated strongly affected P. operculella trap catches.

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Authors: Ferenc D. Tóth, Attila Bácsi, Zoltán Beck and et al.

Sensitive detection methods, such as DNA PCR and RNA PCR suggest that vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occurs at three major time periods; in utero, around the time of birth, and postpartum as a result of breastfeeding (Fig. 1). Detection of proviral DNA in infant's blood at birth suggests that transmission occurred prior to delivery. A working definition for time of infection is that HIV detection by DNA PCR in the first 48 h of life indicates in utero transmission, while peripartum transmission is considered if DNA PCR is negative the first 48 h, but then it is positive 7 or more days later [1]. Generally, in the breastfeeding population, breast milk transmission is thought to occur if virus is not detected by PCR at 3–5 months of life but is detected thereafter within the breastfeeding period [2]. Using these definitions and guidelines, studies has suggested that in developed countries the majority, or two thirds of vertical transmission occur peripartum, and one-third in utero [3–6]. The low rate of breastfeeding transmission is due to the practice of advising known HIV-positive mothers not to feed breast milk. However, since the implementation of antiretroviral treatment in prophylaxis of HIV-positive mothers, some studies have suggested that in utero infection accounts for a larger percentage of vertical transmissions [7]. In developing countries, although the majority of infections occurs also peripartum, a significant percentage, 10–17%, is thought to be due to breastfeeding [2, 8, 9].

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