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Abstract  

Recent years have seen enormously increased interest in the comparative evaluation of research quality in the UK, with considerable resources devoted to ranking the output of academic institutions relative to one another at the sub-discipline level, and the disposition of even greater resources dependent on the outcome of this process. The preferred methodology has been that of traditional peer review, with expert groups of academics tasked to assess the relative worth of all research activity in ‘their’ field. Extension toinstitutional evaluation of a recently refined technique ofjournal ranking (Discipline Contribution Scoring) holds out the possibility of ‘automatic’ evaluation within a time-frame considerably less than would be required using methods based directly on citation counts within the corpus of academic work under review. This paper tests the feasibility of the technique in the sub-field of Business and Management Studies Research, producing rankings which are highly correlated with those generated by the much more complex and expensive direct peer review approach. More generally, the analysis also gives a rare opportunity directly to compare the equivalence of peer review bibliometric analysis over a whole sub-field of academic activity in a non-experimental setting.

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Abstract  

A faster, more cost-effective, and higher-quality data acquisition for natural background-level metals and radionuclides in soils is needed for remedial investigations of contaminated sites. The advantages and disadvantages of neutron activation analysis (NAA) compared with those of acid-digestion-based spectrometry (ADS) methods were evaluated using Al, Sb, As, Cr, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Hg, K, Ag,232Th,235U,238U, V, and Zn data. The ADS methods used for this project were inductively coupled plasma (ICP), ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and alpha spectrometry. Scatter plots showed that the NAA results for As, Co, Fe, Mn,232Th, and238U are reasonably correlated with the results from the other analytical methods. Compared to NAA, however, the ADS methods underestimated Al, Cr, Mg, K, V, and Zn. Because of the high detection limits of ADS methods, the scatter plots of Sb, Hg, and Ag did not show a definite relationship. The NAA results were highly correlated with the alpha spectrometry results for232Th and238U but poorly correlated for235U. The NAA, including the delayed neutron counting, was a far superior technique for quantifying background levels of radionuclides (232Th,235U, and238U) and metals (Al, Cr, Mg, K, V, and Zn) in soils.

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Journal of Evolutionary Psychology
Authors:
Paul J. Fraccaro
,
Benedict C. Jones
,
Jovana Vukovic
,
Finlay G. Smith
,
Christopher D. Watkins
,
David R. Feinberg
,
Anthony C. Little
, and
Lisa M. Debruine

Abstract

Although humans can raise and lower their voice pitch, it is not known whether such alterations can function to increase the likelihood of attracting preferred mates. Because men find higher-pitched women's voices more attractive, the voice pitch with which women speak to men may depend on the strength of their attraction to those men. Here, we measured voice pitch when women left voicemail messages for masculinized and feminized versions of a prototypical male face. We found that the difference in women's voice pitch between these two conditions positively correlated with the strength of their preference for masculinized versus feminized male faces, whereby women tended to speak with a higher voice pitch to the type of face they found more attractive (masculine or feminine). Speaking with a higher voice pitch when talking to the type of man they find most attractive may function to reduce the amount of mating effort that women expend in order to attract and retain preferred mates.

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Journal of Evolutionary Psychology
Authors:
Christopher D. Watkins
,
Lisa M. Debruine
,
Anthony C. Little
,
David R. Feinberg
,
Paul J. Fraccaro
, and
Benedict C. Jones

Abstract

Recent research suggests that men may possess adaptations that evolved to counter strategic variation in women's preferences for masculine men. For example, women's preferences for masculine, dominant men are stronger during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle than at other times and men demonstrate increased sensitivity to facial cues of male dominance when their partners are ovulating. Such variation in men's dominance perceptions may promote efficient allocation of men's mate guarding effort (i.e., allocate more mate guarding effort in response to masculine, dominant men in situations where women show particularly strong preferences for such men). Here, we tested for further evidence of adaptations that may have evolved to counter strategic variation in women's masculinity preferences. Men who reported having particularly feminine romantic partners demonstrated a greater tendency to attribute dominance to masculinized male faces than did men who reported having relatively masculine romantic partners. This relationship between partner femininity and men's sensitivity to facial cues of male dominance remained significant when we controlled for potential confounds (men's age, self-rated masculinity, reported commitment to their relationship, and the length of the relationship) and may be adaptive given that feminine women demonstrate particularly strong preferences for masculine, dominant men. While previous research has emphasized variation in women's masculinity preferences, our findings add to a growing body of research suggesting that sexual selection may also have shaped adaptations that evolved to counter such systematic variation in women's preferences for masculine, dominant men.

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