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Abstract  

AP/HTPB based composite propellants with additives such as ammonium oxalate (AO), mixture of ammonium oxalate and strontium carbonate (SC) was investigated by burning rate, TG-DTG and FTIR experiments. The results show that the burning rates of these propellants are decreased significantly. TG-DTG experiments indicate that decomposition temperatures of AP with these additives are increased. Furthermore, the activation energy of the decomposition reaction of AP is also increased in the presence of AO or AO/SC. These results show that AO or AO/SC restrains the decomposition of AP. The burning rates of these propellants are decreased. The burning rate temperature sensitivity of AP/HTPB based propellants is reduced significantly by the addition of AO or AO/SC. But the effect of AO is less than that of AO/SC. AO/SC is better effect to reduce temperature sensitivity and at the same time, to reduce pressure exponent. The reduced heat release at the burning surface of AP/HTPB/AO is responsible for the reduced temperature sensitivity. Synergetic action is probably produced between AO and SC within AP/HTPB based propellants in the pressure range tested. This synergetic effect causes the heat release to reduce and the burning surface temperature to increase. Moreover, it makes the net exothermal reaction of condensed phase become little dependent on T 0. Thus, the burning rate temperature sensitivity is reduced.

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Abstract  

A series of PA-TD mixtures were prepared and their thermal properties were studied by DSC and thermal conductivity measurement. The phase diagram of the binary system was constructed, which showed an eutectic behavior for the solid-liquid equilibrium line. The eutectic composition of the binary system was at the mass fraction of TD near 0.7 with an eutectic temperature of about 29°C. At TD side, PA was partially miscible in the TD solid matrix and the solid phase transition of TD had an effect on the solidus line. The eutectic composition mixture could be viewed as a new phase change material with large thermal energy storage capacity.

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Abstract  

The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the phase change enthalpy (ΔH) and the thermal conductivity (κ) of a solid-liquid phase change materials (PCM), palmitic acid (PA), have been investigated. The results showed that both the ΔH and the κ of the composite were lower than that of PA when the loading of MWNTs was small. As the concentration of MWNTs in the composites increased, the ΔH of the composites was slightly improved and then decreased linearly. However, the κ of the composites was monotonously increased from the minimum value. When the loading of MWNTs increased to 5% and no surfactant was added, the κ of the composite was enhanced to be 26% higher than that of PA. The κ of the composite could be enhanced by CTAB instead of SDBS when the loading of MWNTs was small, as SDBS showed no obvious effect on the κ of the composites. Furthermore, the effects of surface modification of MWNTs on the ΔH and the κ of the composites have also been investigated.

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Abstract  

Polyimide BTDA-ODA sample was prepared by polycondensation or step-growth polymerization method. Its low temperature heat capacities were measured by an adiabatic calorimeter in the temperature range between 80 and 400 K. No thermal anomaly was found in this temperature range. A DSC experiment was conducted in the temperature region from 373 to 673 K. There was not phase change or decomposition phenomena in this temperature range. However two glass transitions were found at 420.16 and 564.38 K. Corresponding heat capacity increments were 0.068 and 0.824 J g–1 K–1, respectively. To study the decomposition characteristics of BTDA-ODA, a TG experiment was carried out and it was found that this polyimide started to decompose at ca 673 K.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: R.D. Wang, Y.J. Deng, L.J. Sun, Y.L. Wang, Z.J. Fang, D.F. Sun, Q. Deng, and R. Gooneratne

Growth and haemolytic activity of several pathogenic Vibrio species were compared in egg-fried-rice with different egg ratios. Egg-fried-rice preparations with rice-to-egg ratios of 4:1, 1:1, and 1:4 were inoculated with either Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, or V. alginolyticus and incubated for 24 h. Cell number, thermostable direct haemolysin (TDH) activity, and total haemolytic activity were determined. The cell number and total haemolytic activity increased in all Vibrio strains after 24 h, and these were most marked in egg-fried-rice with the highest egg content (1:4 (rice:egg) ratio; P<0.05). V. alginolyticus exhibited the maximal growth and V. parahaemolyticus the highest haemolytic activity, but only V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 33847, V. alginolyticus CAMT 21162, and V. alginolyticus HY 91101 showed TDH activity. Results suggest that lowering egg content in egg-fried-rice could reduce growth and virulence of Vibrio pathogens.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Z. Xiao, D. Liu, C. Wang, Z. Cao, X. Zhan, Z. Yin, Q. Chen, H. Liu, F. Xu, and L. Sun

Abstract  

The effect of mechanical alloying on Zn-Sb alloy system is investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser grain size analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) respectively. The results of laser particle size analysis shows that the particle size decreases with increasing of the grinding time between 0 and 24 h. XRD and DSC results indicate that longer the grinding time of Zn-Sb is, the more content of Zn4Sb3 become in the product in this process.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: F. Xu, L. Sun, P. Chen, Y. Qi, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Zhong Cao, D. Yang, J. Zeng, and Y. Du

Abstract  

The heat capacities of LiNH2 and Li2MgN2H2 were measured by a modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) over the temperature range from 223 to 473 K for the first time. The value of heat capacity of LiNH2 is bigger than that of Li2MgN2H2 from 223 to 473 K. The thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (HH 298.15) and entropy (SS 298.15) versus 298.15 K were calculated based on the above heat capacities. The thermal stabilities of them were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) at a heating rate of 10 K min−1 with Ar gas flow rate of 30 mL min−1 from room temperature to 1,080 K. TG curves showed that the thermal decomposition of them occurred in two stages. The order of thermal stability of them is: Li2MgN2H2 > LiNH2. The results indicate that addition of Mg increases the thermal stability of Li–N–H system and decrease the value of heat capacities of Li–N–H system.

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