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  • Author or Editor: D.Y. Xu x
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Abstract  

The combustion energy of thioproline was determined by the precision rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K to be Δc U= –2469.301.44 kJ mol–1. From the results and other auxiliary quantities, the standard molar enthalpy of combustion and the standard molar enthalpy of formation of thioproline were calculated to be Δc H m θC4H7NO2S, (s), 298.15 K= –2469.921.44 kJ mol–1 and Δf H m θC4H7NO2S, (s), 298.15K= –401.331.54 kJ mol–1.

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PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously in Beijing, China, and analyzed by INAA and ICP-MS. Seasonal variations of the concentrations of ambient particles and their elemental compositions were found. The main sources of PM10 and PM2.5 in spring were the crust, coal burning and vehicle exhaust, in which the former was significant. During a strong dust storm, the concentrations of the crustal elements in PM10 and PM2.5 increased remarkably, but the concentrations of some anthropogenic elements decreased. The enrichment factors of these anthropogenic elements also decreased sharply during the dust storm, which indicated that they were mostly originated from local anthropogenic pollution and diluted by the huge amount of dust.

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Changes in microbial population, pH, sugar, organic acid, anthocyanins, total soluble phenolics, and anti-glucosidase contents were measured during fermentation of mulberry juice at 30 °C by probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides showing rapid growth after an approximately 1-day lag phase and reaching a maximum of 8.6 log CFU ml−1 after 4 d. During the rapid growth phase, the main mulberry juice sugars, glucose and fructose, were largely consumed, and the acidic metabolites, lactic acid and acetic acid, were produced accordingly. A slow decrease in the concentration of the main organic acid, citric acid, was also observed during fermentation. After 4 d fermentation, anthocyanin content showed a 44.4% reduction, but the total amount of soluble phenolics and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity showed no significant changes (P>0.05). This suggests that L. mesenteroides fermentation of mulberry juice is a good strategy to enhance its probiotic value and to decrease the sugar content without changing the anti-glucosidase activity, which is required to reduce postprandial rise in blood glucose.

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Abstract  

Yaozhou Kiln at Lidipo and Shangdian are two independent porcelain kiln groups of Yaozhou kiln series in Shanxi Province. Both of them were consisted of some individual porcelain kilns. The samples of 20 pieces of porcelain sherds produced in Shangdian and 43 pieces of porcelain sherds made in Lidipo sites which produced in Kin Dynasty (1115–1234 A.D.) have been collected. The main chemical compositions in body were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The contents of trace elements were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise discriminant analysis were used to study the provenance characteristic of these samples. The results indicated that the main components and trace elements in the specimen can be used to reveal the provenance characteristic.

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Radix Isatidis has widely useful activities including anti-virus, anti-bacterial. Tryptanthrin, indigo, and indirubin are active ingredients in R. Isatidis. Response surface methodology (RSM)-optimized infrared-assisted extraction (IRAE) was developed and combined with HPLC for simultaneous determination of tryptanthrin, indigo, and indirubin from R. Isatidis. IRAE were investigated through extraction yields of the three components and optimized by RSM. The optimum conditions were as follows: infrared power of 129 W, solid/liquid ratio of 1:40 g/mL, and irradiation time of 22.5 min. IRAE conditions obtained by RSM were not only accurate, but also had practical value reflecting the expected optimization. Subsequently, this novel IRAE method was evaluated by extraction yield of the components of R. Isatidis samples from different regions. Compared with common extraction methods including maceration extraction (ME), reflux extraction (RE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), IRAE showed higher yield with advantages of no limitation of solvent selection, low cost, convenience under optimum extraction conditions. These results suggested the potential of RSM-optimized IRAE for extraction and analysis of the water-/fat-soluble compositions of Chinese herbal medicine. A simple chromatographic separation for simultaneous determination of tryptanthrin, indigo, and indirubin from Chinese herbal medicine R. Isatidis was performed on a C18 column (Diamonsil 150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) with a mobile phase isocratic consisting of methanol and water at a flow-rate of 0.8 mL min−1. The retention times of tryptanthrin, indigo, and indirubin were 15.4, 31.9, and 58.6 min, respectively. The linear equations were obtained as follows: y = −3094.5744 + 21208.792x for tryptanthrin (R = 0.9998, 0.9–18.0 μg mL−1), y = 4730.0448 + 30180.567x for indigo (R = 0.9997, 0.5–10.0 μg mL−1) and y = −6582.9045 + 67069.312x for indirubin (R = 0.9997, 0.4–8.0 μg mL−1). The result showed that RSM-optimized IRAE was a simple, efficient pretreatment method for the analysis of complex matrix.

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Abstract  

Although Ir anomaly has been discovered in a number of C/T boundaries in the world, no positive results of this anomaly in Permian/Triassic (P/Tr) boundary were given. There are many well-developed P/T sections in South China. One of representative sections is located at the Baoqing quarry, Meishan Town, Changxin County, Zhejiang Province. Ir, Os, Re, Au, Pt, Cu and Mo were determined by the radiochemical procedure developed in our laboratory. (1) Besides those accessible by INAA. The results reveal that the refractory siderophile and other chalcophile elements have certain enrichment near and at the boundary layer. However, the Ir/Au and other element abundance ratios fail to accord with the extraterrestrial values. The nature of the boundary event was discussed in terms of elemental geochemistry.

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The paper presents the results of determination of extractable organohalogens (EOX) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by gas chromatography (GC), in atmospheric precipitation in Shanghai, China, from January to August 2005. The results showed that EOCI was the major component of organohalogens in precipitation. A significant correlation between the concentrations of EOBr and EOI was observed (r 2 = 0.75), which suggested that EOBr and EOI in precipitation might mainly come from the same sources. There were no clear seasonal trends for the concentrations of EOX. The concentrations of ΣPCBs ranged from 0.2–2.8 ng/l, with the dominant PCBs containing 3 to 5 chlorine atoms. HCH was the predominant pesticide in precipitation, accounting for over 80% of total OCPs, in which β-HCH took 28%–72% of total HCH. Also, there may be an evidence for significantly historical usage of DDT.

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Abstract  

The concentrations of 14 elements, including Ir, Au, Co, Cr, Fe, Sr, Rb, K, Ta, Zn, Sb, Ba, Sc and Se, in the Wuxi fallen ice were determined by neutron activation analysis. The experimental results show that the relative concentration ratios of Ir/Co, Ir/Cr and Ir/Sc etc. in the ice water (0.0069, 0.00024 and 0.11, respectively) are quite close to those of Type C1 chondrite (0.0102, 0.00021 and 0.092, respectively), which implies that the fallen ice might be a piece of extraterrestrial substance.

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Although significant progress has been made on Agrobacterium -mediated wheat transformation, the current methodologies use immature embryos as recipient tissues, a process which is labor intensive, time consuming and expensive. In this study, we have managed to develop an Agrobacterium -based transformation scheme using explants derived from mature embryos. Based on transient expression of β -glucuronidase (GUS) marker, mature embryo halves prepared from freshly imbibed seeds were generally most susceptible to Agrobacterium -mediated T-DNA transfer. According to the results of callus induction and shoot production, Yumai 66 and Lunxuan 208 showed higher selection and regeneration efficiency than Bobwhite. In line with this finding, fertile T 0 transgenic plants were most readily obtained for both spring and winter wheat when mature embryo halves were used for co-inoculation by Agrobacterium cells. The presence of the antibiotic selection marker ( nptII , encoding neomycin phosphotransferase II) in the T 0 plants was revealed by both genomic PCR amplification and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additional analysis showed that the transgene was stably inherited from the two different generations and segregated normally among the T 1 progenies. Further development along this line will raise the efficiency of wheat transformation and increase the use of this approach in the molecular breeding of wheat crop.

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Summary

Dithiocarbamates fungicides (DTCs) are worldwidely used fungicides. Residue analytical methods on DTCs are usually based on headspace gas chromatography, which are not much stable and precise. In this study, a specific, simple and reliable method for determining DTCs fungicides residues was optimized and validated. The DTCs in foods and soils were extracted with an alkaline solution of EDTA and l-cysteine, followed by pH adjusting and methyl derivatization in methyl iodine solution. The organic layer of the reactants was separated, concentrated under vacuum and reconstructed in acetonitrile. DTCs residues were eluted on a C18 column and detected by HPLC-DAD at 272 nm. The S-alkyl derivatives of thiram, mancozeb and propineb were separated at different retention times. At fortified levels of 0.05 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg (residue expressed as CS2, in mg/kg, the same below), it is found that recoveries for DTCs spiked in apple, cucumber, tomato, rice and soil samples ranged from 70.8% to 105.3%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) from 0.6% to 13.7%. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.003 to 0.026 mg/kg and from 0.011 to 0.105 mg/kg for various foods and soils. This method was also applied to real sample tests.

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