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  • Author or Editor: Da Lu x
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Abstract

Following World War II, a series of Conferences were held among the great powers. Hungary, along with its neighboring countries, had to join the socialist bloc and transformed itself into a socialist system. The Communist Party adopted the communist Constitution as soon as they won the parliamentary election. In the Far East, the Chinese Communist Party also promulgated its Constitution after the first election of the National People’s Republic. In this article, the author will firstly examine how the Constitution adopted between China and Hungary followed by a comparative analysis of the two Constitutions will be employed. The author will give special attention on the text and structure of the Constitution in the respective countries. In the end, the relations with Soviet Union between China and Hungary influenced the two Constitutions will be considered.

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Abstract  

A method for systematic separation and determination of some neutron-activated nuclides and actinides is described. The method is designed to utilize stable isotopes and radioactive tracers as chemical yield monitors and to separate nuclides of interest from a single limited sample. Gravimetric, spectrophotometric, radiometric and X-ray fluorescence analysis were used for determination of chemical yields of the nuclides. Overall chemical yields generally ranged from 60–90%. Separated and purified nuclides were detected by -spectrometry or isotope dilution -spectrometry. The detection limit for neutron-activated nuclides is 107 nuclides and the precision is better than 3% RSD.

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Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a very serious disease in wheat and barley production area. FHB epidemics cause yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. Understanding the infection mechanism of F. graminearum plays an important role for the disease control. In present study, green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged were infected to wheat and barley varieties by single floret injection and screened via GFP signal. Results showed similar infection pattern of F. graminearum on both wheat and barley. Pathogen geminated in the inoculated spikelets, grew on the top of ovary or between lemma and palea, and extended towards and through rachis to the adjacent spikelets to infect the whole spike. When a spike of cultivar with FHB resistance was inoculated by F. graminearum , only the injected spikelet showed symptom at 6 days past inoculation (dpi). GFP signals indicated that F. graminearum colonized only in the inoculated spikelet and stop at the compact tissue of rachilla at 6 dpi. On the contrary, the diseased spikelets were up to 5 at 6 dpi in the spike of cultivars susceptible to FHB. F. graminearum extended through compact tissue to rachis and infected to the adjacent spikelets by spreading upward and downward to adjacent florets inter- and intra-cellularly in vascular bundles and cortical tissue of the rachis.

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