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  • Author or Editor: Dan-Dan Xu x
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Abstract  

PM2.5 and PM10 samples were simultaneously collected monthly at a downtown site in Beijing from May 2002 to April 2003 and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) combined with organic solvent extraction method for the concentrations and distributions of extractable organohalogens (EOX), including extractable organochlorinated (EOCl), organobrominated (EOBr) and organoiodinated compounds (EOI). The concentrations of EOCl, EOBr and EOI were 10.5–79.2 ng/m3, ND-8.2 ng/m3 and 1.6–8.2 ng/m3 in PM2.5, respectively, and 37.0–73.3 ng/m3, 1.6–12.8 ng/m3 and 1.6–8.5 ng/m3 in PM10, respectively, which were increasing in the order of EOCl≫EOBr∼EOI. EOCl accounted for 73–88% and 69–91% of EOX in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, which showed that EOCl was the major component of the organohalogens. There was a significant difference of EOCl concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 in different seasons, which suggested that the concentrations of EOCl in the atmosphere were significantly affected by the meteorologic conditions and anthropogenic activities.

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Authors: Lu Li, Dan-Dan Xu, Jing-Xin Chai, Di Wang, Lin Li, Ling Zhang, Li Lu, Chee H. Ng, Gabor S. Ungvari, Song-Li Mei and Yu-Tao Xiang

Background and aims

Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is common in university students. A number of studies have examined the prevalence of IAD in Chinese university students, but the results have been inconsistent. This is a meta-analysis of the prevalence of IAD and its associated factors in Chinese university students.

Methods

Both English (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase) and Chinese (Wan Fang Database and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure) databases were systematically and independently searched from their inception until January 16, 2017.

Results

Altogether 70 studies covering 122,454 university students were included in the meta-analysis. Using the random-effects model, the pooled overall prevalence of IAD was 11.3% (95% CI: 10.1%–12.5%). When using the 8-item Young Diagnostic Questionnaire, the 10-item modified Young Diagnostic Questionnaire, the 20-item Internet Addiction Test, and the 26-item Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the pooled prevalence of IAD was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.7%–10.4%), 9.3% (95% CI: 7.6%–11.4%), 11.2% (95% CI: 8.8%–14.3%), and 14.0% (95% CI: 10.6%–18.4%), respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the pooled prevalence of IAD was significantly associated with the measurement instrument (Q = 9.41, p = .024). Male gender, higher grade, and urban abode were also significantly associated with IAD. The prevalence of IAD was also higher in eastern and central of China than in its northern and western regions (10.7% vs. 8.1%, Q = 4.90, p = .027).

Conclusions

IAD is common among Chinese university students. Appropriate strategies for the prevention and treatment of IAD in this population need greater attention.

Open access
Authors: Li Li, Wei Wang, Xiangshang Xu, Hui Wang, Shujie Liao, Wei Li, Weina Zhang, Dan Liu, Bo Cao, Shixuan Wang, Keng Shen and Ding Ma

Abstract  

Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has emerged as an attractive and promising strategy for the management of malignant diseases. It has been proven to be quite effective in the treatment of numerous tumors, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, metastatic prostate cancer, melanoma, thyroid cancer, colon cancer and so on. The RIT currently used is mainly based on monoclonal antibodies to recognize target antigens. As antibodies are large molecules, this method of RIT has some limitations in in vivo use, such as the immunogenicity, the high costs and low efficiency of production. Aptamer is discovered and selected by SELEX technology. As specific recognizers and binders, aptamers and antibodies have such a close similarity as to be interchangeable to some extent. But, aptamers have many advantages over antibodies: higher affinity and specificity, smaller molecular weight, more easily synthesized and modified, more rapidly penetrating into tumors, higher tumor-to-blood distribution ratio and more easily to be cleared. In addition, since aptamer has almost no immunogenicity in vivo, it can be repeatedly administered. Thus, we believe that aptamer-based RIT will be a feasible and promising way to treat human cancers, and it might display better results in cancer treatment than antibody-based RIT. In conclusion, aptamer-based RIT is hopeful to become a key therapeutics in cancer radiotherapy in the near future.

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