Authors:Salem Juwaid, Ratko Sukara, Aleksandra Penezić, Darko Mihaljica, Gorana Veinović, Nickolas G. Kavallieratos, Duško Ćirović, and Snežana Tomanović
Tick-borne haematozoans cause severe diseases in domestic animals, and some of them have zoonotic potential. The results of previous studies in Europe point to the important role of foxes in natural endemic cycles of several tick-borne pathogens, including protozoa. The aim of the present research was to acquire information on the prevalence and distribution of tick-borne protozoan parasites among foxes in Serbia. Legally hunted foxes from 14 localities throughout Serbia were analysed. Spleen samples were collected from 129 animals and tested for the presence of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. by PCR. In total, 79/129 (61.2%) of the tested foxes were positive for H. canis, while the presence of two Babesia species was confirmed: B. vulpes (37/129, 28.7%) and B. canis (1/129, 0.8%). Coinfection with B. vulpes and H. canis was present in 26/129 (20.2%) foxes and one animal (1/129, 0.8%) was co-infected by B. canis and H. canis. The results of this study indicate the important role of foxes in the epizootiology of B. vulpes and H. canis in the Republic of Serbia and stress the need for further research to clarify all elements of the enzootic cycle of the detected pathogens, including other reservoirs, vectors, and transmission routes.
Authors:Gorana Veinović, Sanja Ćakić, Darko Mihaljica, Ratko Sukara, Eva Ružić–Sabljić, and Snežana Tomanović
In the present study, the effectiveness of six antimicrobial agents have been tested against 24 borrelia strains isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks (11 Borrelia lusitaniae, eight Borrelia afzelii, three Borrelia garinii and two Borrelia valaisiana) and one B. lusitaniae strain isolated from human skin. The minimum inhibitory concentration range of antimicrobial agents was as follows: amoxicillin, 0.125–2 mg/L; doxycycline, 0.125–1 mg/L, ceftriaxone, 0.016–0.063 mg/L; cefuroxime, 0.063–1 mg/L; azithromycin, 0.0017–0.11 mg/L; amikacin 32–512 mg/L. Potentially pathogenic B. lusitaniae and B. valaisiana species were more susceptible to amoxicillin and azithromycin than pathogenic B. afzelii and B. garinii (P < 0.05); B. garinii, B. lusitaniae and B. valaisiana were more susceptible to doxycycline than B. afzelii (P < 0.05) while all species showed same susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefuroxime (P > 0.05). This study is the first report on in vitro susceptibility of isolates from Serbia to antimicrobial agents and the first report on susceptibility of larger number of isolates of potentially pathogenic species B. lusitaniae. We showed that antimicrobial agents in vitro inhibit growth of borrelia strains very effectively, indicating the potential of their equally beneficial use in the treatment of Lyme borreliosis.