If the student status ends before the absolutorium (pre-degree), we can speak about dropout. In our paper, we are going to present the cases of termination of the student status and we would also like to make a comparison in three countries: Hungary, Ukraine, and Romania. The aim of our research is to demonstrate the various ways in which student status can be terminated. The dropout is an important and significant topic in higher education policy, because it causes institutional and individual loss, too.
Összefoglaló. A doktori képzés területén jelentős nemzetközi
átrendeződés történt a 2000-es évektől. Magyarország a doktori képzés
rendszerváltás utáni kialakításakor a stabilabb képzési környezetet teremtő
programmodell mellett döntött, azonban a globális kihívások (hosszú képzési idő,
tanulói státusz) a magyarországi doktori képzést is érintik. Ez indokolta a
doktori képzés struktúraváltását 2016-ban. Tanulmányunkban áttekintjük a
nemzetközi és hazai változásokat a képzésben, s képet adunk a hazai beiskolázási
adatokról is, melyekhez a Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, az Országos Doktori
Tanács, a Diplomás Pályakövetési Rendszer (N = 509) és a
Persist (N = 1020) létszámadatait és adatbázisait használtuk.
Eredményeinkből egy lassan növekvő és tudományterületileg erősen tagolt
doktorandusz-társadalom képe bontakozik ki. Tanulmányunk fontos megállapítása,
hogy a doktori képzés vonzását a felsőoktatás korábbi szintjein szerzett kedvező
tapasztalatokkal lehet növelni.
Summary. There has been a significant international reorganization
in the field of doctoral training since the 2000s. After the change of regime,
Hungary opted for a program model that created a more stable training
environment, but global challenges (e.g. long training time, student status)
also affect doctoral training in Hungary. These problems led to a structural
change in doctoral training in 2016. In our study, we review international and
domestic changes in education, and provide an overview of domestic enrollment
data, for which we analyze the headcount data and databases of the Central
Statistical Office, the National Doctoral Council, the Graduate Career Tracking
System (N = 509) and Persist (N = 1020). In
our results, we present an expanding, but highly divided doctoral student
society. An important finding of our study is that the attractiveness of
doctoral training can be increased by the positive experience gained at previous
levels of higher education.
Our research is a part of a complex dropout research, whose main aim is to examine the time changes, social and regional inequalities, and constitutional differentiation of student dropout, appearing on a large scale and causing individual and institutional loss. As a part of this, the aim of our research on one hand is to identify the training fields and training levels with high dropout risk, furthermore to draw the patterns of dropout based on the available countrywide data.
We analyzed the database of the Hungarian Higher Education Informational System for our research, especially considering the students starting their training, based on final exam. We examined the most important features of advancements in studies, furthermore the occurring recoils. Considering our data, the measure of dropout remarkable differs based on the training fields and schedule, training, finances and some demographically background variable as well, taking the measure of dropout and its reasons into account. During our analysis, we separated three main types of the dropout’s reasons: financial reasons, study inefficiency, and dropout caused by other reasons.
In this study, we examine these types and their characteristics in three different training levels: Bachelor degree programs, undivided, long-cycle Master courses, and short-cycle higher education vocational training.
Almost one third of the students end up joining the group of dropout in all kind of training type, especially critical period is from the second to the fifth semester. The most endangered are males, correspondent students, fee-paying students, participants of higher education vocational training, furthermore the students of science and students of IT fields.
Higher educational dropout is a significant area of education policy in Hungary. First, the proportion of graduated higher educational students is low when compared to the OECD average, which may be caused by dropout from higher educational courses. On the other hand, although the phenomenon of dropout has been closely investigated in several international research papers, the methodology used to determine the dropout ratio is unsatisfactory, mainly due to the lack of expert consensus. As a consequence, we do not have precise data regarding the dropout ratios, which make investigations related to this area even more necessary. The aim of this study was to measure the possible reasons for delayed graduation and dropout, and it was carried out as a qualitative study based on existing theories. In our investigation, the role of the sociocultural background; the years prior to the time spent in higher education; and the motivation of the choice of institution, employment, sports, and social activities were measured through an analysis of seven individual interviews and one focus group conversation involving 10 participants based on a semi-structured interview methodology. The causes of delayed graduation and dropout, which are more difficult to observe, are an inappropriately chosen institution and/or course, employment while studying intensively in a higher education institution, competitive sport and friends with a negative attitude toward learning. Our analysis provides a stable basis for a wider questionnaire-based investigation on a representative sample and its main units have been developed according to the research blocks of the interview analysis.