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  • Author or Editor: E Cserháti x
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The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the knowledge on asthma through the history of mankind. The text begins with ancient China and it is finished with the medicine of Middle Age. During this time, a lot of theories came and this appeared about the etiology and therapy of the disease. The paper is giving a short description of the changing medical views during this very long period including China, Egypt Greco-roman period, Mesopotamia, the Hebrews, the physicians of India, the pre-Columbian medicine in the America and the Arabic world, and partly the European medicine of the Middle Ages.

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The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the history of knowledge on asthma from the Renaissance till the beginning of the 20 th century. During this period the clinical picture of bronchial asthma and some etiological factors - like familiarity of the disease, the role of the pollen, psychological factors - were cleared. The disease was relatively rare in these periods - the epidemiological explosion came only in the second half of the 20 th century. Data on pediatric asthma, before all in Hungary are demonstrated mostly based on the works of Schoepf and Bókai senior in the first half of the 19 th century.

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The effect of the addition of extracts of agro-industrial wastes to the culture media on the production of ß-glucosidase, xylanase, laccase, manganese-dependent and independent peroxidases by the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was determined. The relationship between cultivation parameters and the enzyme activities was assessed by spectral mapping technique combined with non-linear mapping. It was proved that extracts enhanced markedly the activities of laccase, manganese-dependent and independent peroxidases. Multivariate mathematical-statistical methods indicated that the enzyme activities were the highest in culture containing pepper extract. It was further demonstrated that the selectivity of the enzyme production was negligible up till 14 days of fermentation and reached the maximum at the 28 th day.

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The activity of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase produced by Pleurotus ostreatus in culture media composed of agro-residues was measured by spectrophotometry. The overall enzyme activity and its dependence on the composition of culture media were determined by using spectral mapping technique followed by non-linear mapping. The relationships between the parameters of enzyme production and the composition of culture media and fermentation time were assessed by stepwise regression analysis. It was established that P. ostreatus did not produce LiP. The lowest enzyme production was observed in culture media containing extract of wheat straw. This finding indicates that the use of other agro-residues as substitutes for wheat straw is justified. It was further established that the enzyme production was also influenced by the pH of the culture media. It was found that enzyme activity quadratically depended on the fermentation time.

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Wild Origanum vulgare populations in Hungary have been analysed. In 2010 the morphological variability of 11 populations in five shires was investigated, the features of habitats were also described. The difference in elevation between the lowest and highest locality is 630 m. Nine plant associations, four soil types, variable pH between 4.81–7.96 and humus content from 0.54% to 6.97% were determined. Among the examined individual plants the maximum length of stem was 107 cm, the highest number of branches was 14 pairs, furthermore procumbent and mellow stems were also found. The defined colours of inflorescences are dyes of pink or purple. Despite to these we found individuals in one population with white flowers, green bracts and calyces.

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