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The coat protein gene (CP) from a highly virulent, necrotic and dominant strain of potato virus Y (PVY) originated from the Hungarian flora has been engineered via Agrobacterium infection into different Hungarian tobacco breeding lines and cultivars. The integration of the CP was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genomic prepa­ra­tions. The transcription and the expression of the integrated CP gene were detected by Northern and Western analysis. The pathogen-derived resis­tance was demonstrated by inoculation of the R1 progeny of transformant plants with purified PVY. The efficiency of the protection varied between different transgenic tobaccos ranging from complete to no protection. The challenge infection of the plants was monitored by dot blot hybridisation at different intervals after mechanical inoculation. Western blot analysis showed that there is no correlation between the level of expressed CP and the extent of resistance. From tobacco cultivars namely Virgin D, Stamm C2 and Hevesi 11, 38, 55 and 23 transformants were obtained, respectively. After several years of greenhouse expe­ri­ments, only the extreme resistant tobaccos were planted field under the special licence, given by the competent authority. In field conditions, transgenic tobacco varieties showed extreme resistance against natural infection of PVY.

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Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing post-traumatic growth in breast cancer patients during 3 years after diagnosis.

Materials and methods

Our longitudinal study involved 71 medium and high-risk breast cancer patients, who received special attention and either hypnosis or music psychological intervention while receiving the same chemotherapy protocol. The influences of the interventions, as well as the demographic (age, marital status, and educational level) and psychosocial factors (coping, post-traumatic stress, and well-being), on post-traumatic growth were explored.

Results

The results showed that over 97% of our patients experienced post-traumatic growth. It was positively associated with Quality of Life domains 3 years after diagnosis, and with Psychological Immune Competence cumulative scores after treatment and 3 years after diagnosis. Psychological Immune Competence, emotional severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms, and the social support scale of Quality of Life explained 33.9% of the variance of post-traumatic growth.

Conclusion

The results confirm that positive coping strategies, emotional severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms, and social support contribute to post-traumatic growth, and that post-traumatic growth has a weak to moderate association with quality of life.

Open access

Experimental fields of a tobacco breeding station in Hungary at Debrecen were surveyed for potato virus Y (PVY) populations for over a decade. In this field, hundreds of crosses were grown regularly and most of them were lines and hybrids genetically resistant against potato virus Y. From 1993, transgenic tobacco lines bearing the coat protein gene of the new tuber necrotic strain of potato virus Y (NTN) were planted in this experimental field and tested yearly for their virus resistance and the durability of their resistance. During this period, no peculiar strain of PVY was observed, judging from symptoms or using biological tests. In the last five year period the biological observations of PVY isolates were combined with partial molecular analysis. The coat protein gene of PVY from all different isolates collected yearly was cloned, and the most variable 5' ends of the genes were sequenced and compared. All isolates belonged to the new tuber necrotic strain except one, showing the relative stability of the potato virus Y population in an area where genetically different tobacco lines, including transgenic ones, are grown and exposed to natural infection.

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The coat protein (CP) gene from a necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVY) has been engineered into two-old Hungarian cultivars, namely cv. Mindenes and Somogyi kifli. The integration of the coat protein gene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genomic DNA preparations. The transcription and the expression of the integrated CP gene was followed by Northern and Western blot. The pathogene derived resistance was demonstrated by mechanical inoculation of the trans­formant plants after the transfer of the regenerants into soil. The efficiency of the virus protection varied between different potatoes ranging to complete protection to no protection. All plants were tested in field conditions under the special licence, given the competent authority instructed by the Hungarian gene technology act. In two consecutive years three Mindenes independent transformants proved to be highly resistant against two different strains of PVY in provocative experiment.

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Purpose

The effectiveness of psychotherapeutic techniques with breast cancer patients has been extensively studied; however, there is limited information available on subjective experiences of patients. The aim of this study was to establish a category system and describe the characteristics of patients’ subjective experiences in three different intervention groups: hypnosis, music, and special attention.

Materials and methods

Content analysis of short interviews after 21 sessions of intervention was conducted to examine and compare subjective experiences in hypnosis, music, and special attention. Two types of coding system were developed: Characteristics of Involvement (CI) and Intensity of Involvement (II).

Results

Based on CI, the most dominant subjective experience of breast cancer patients was the “Pleasant Somatic Experience.” Furthermore, “Visualisation of Symbols” was the most frequent in the hypnosis intervention. Based on II, most common experience of the special attention group was coded as “low intensity.” The frequencies of “low/high intensity” experiences were different between hypnosis and music interventions. “High intensity” was more dominant in hypnosis than music intervention.

Conclusions

Both category systems may be reliable tools to examine patients’ subjective experience. Hypnosis as intervention can result in more extended subjective experiences in CI and II.

Open access

Abstract  

It is demonstrated that combined PIXE and PIGE measurements are suitable for the accurate determination of the elemental concentration of glass samples. Borosilicate glasses used as high voltage insulators in Van de Graaff accelerators and tested for the relevant physical properties have been analyzed. A correlation between concentrations and physical properties has been found, supporting the additivity rule.

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Central European Geology
Authors:
János Haas
,
Tamás Budai
,
István Dunkl
,
Éva Farics
,
Sándor Józsa
,
Szilvia Kövér
,
Annette E. Götz
,
Olga Piros
, and
Péter Szeitz

The 1,200-m-deep Budaörs-1 borehole provided important data for our understanding of the stratigraphy and tectonic setting of the southern part of the Buda Hills. Although previous reports contained valid observations and interpretations, a number of open questions remained. The importance of this borehole and the unsolved problems motivated us to revisit the archived core. The new studies confirmed the existing stratigraphic assignment for the upper dolomite unit (Budaörs Dolomite Formation) as the dasycladalean alga flora proved its late Anisian to Ladinian age assignment. An andesite dike was intersected within the Budaörs Dolomite. U–Pb age determination performed on zircon crystals revealed a Carnian age (~233 Ma), and settled the long-lasting dispute on the age of this dike, proving the existence of a Carnian volcanic activity in this area after the deposition of the Budaörs Dolomite. Palynostratigraphic studies provided evidence for a late Carnian to early Norian age of the upper part of the lower unit (Mátyáshegy Formation). This result verified an earlier assumption and reinforced the significance of the tectonic contact between the upper unit (Budaörs Formation) and the lower unit (Mátyáshegy Formation). Based on structural observations and construction of cross sections, two alternative models are presented for the structural style and kinematics of the contact zone between the Budaörs and Mátyáshegy Formations. Model A suggests a Cretaceous age for the juxtaposition, along an E–W striking sinistral transpressional fault. In contrast, model B postulates dextral transpression and an Eocene age for the deformation. The latter one is better supported by the scattered dip data; however, both scenarios are considered in this paper as possible models.

Open access