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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: E. Firatligil-Durmuş, A. Sýkorová, E. Šárka, Z. Bubník, M. Schejbal, and J. Příhoda

Digital image analysis was used to test the quality parameters of six varieties of Triticum aestivum L. and one variety of Triticum duro-compactum L. — projected area, equivalent diameter, MaxFeret and MinFeret (minimum or maximum perpendicular distance between parallel tangents touching opposite sides of the profile of the chosen object), perimeter, thickness and crease depth (both measured using a digital calliper) of a kernel ranging from 16.52–20.22 mm 2 , 4.58–5.07 mm, 16.70–20.82 mm, 6.21–7.29 mm, 3.32–3.78 mm, 2.69–3.12 mm, 0.23–0.42 mm. The size data were used for calculation of volumes and surface areas of wheat kernels modelled as a general ellipsoid. The calculation of surface area using finite element method (FEM) was based on computer software MAPLE 9.0 and the results were compared with a simplified method. The volumes of kernels from the ellipsoid model were corrected with consideration of measured average crease depth; the difference was then max. 3.6%.We tested the correlation of volume and surface areas obtained from the ellipsoidal model with the measured projected areas; the resulting high correlation coefficient for the varieties of Triticum aestivum enables the use of only 2D image analysis measurement, for quick estimation of surface and volume parameters, without time consuming thickness measuring. However, the shape of Triticum duro-compactum kernels was a little different and the designed geometrical model was thus not suitable.We recommend image analysis as a simple and rapid method for obtaining the parameters of wheat grain for engineering purposes.

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The aim of the paper was to seek suitable conditions of extrusion cooking using a laboratory single-screw extruder to increase slowly digestible (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) content in extrudates saving sensory characteristics of the final product prepared from corn grits with added native wheat starch, distarch phosphates, or soluble fibre Nutriose (Roquette, France).

In addition to the composition of input mixtures, process parameters of a single-screw extruder, such as speed of screw and barrel temperatures, were changed. The highest expansion ratio (4.14) was found for temperatures 44 °C, 90 °C, 120 °C, and 140 °C, die diameter 3 mm, compression ratio 3:1, rotation speed 140 r.p.m., and dosing 15 r.p.m. The addition of native wheat starch to corn grits resulted in values of the expansion ratio ranging from 1.17–2.38.

A high concentration of RS — 2.4% per starch — was observed for a 20% ratio of Nutriose with a 10% addition of water. The addition of 20–50% of native wheat starch resulted in values ranging from 0.2–0.4% per starch. The highest SDS content (72.5% per starch) in extrudates was obtained for the mixture of corn grits, 20% cross-linked starch, and water (10% addition).

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